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survey. We assessed vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]), serum free fatty acids (arachidonic acid [AA], eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and EPA/AA ratio), type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTX), dietary intake (energy, protein, carbohydrate, calcium

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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

resting metabolic rate and/or increased capacity for glucose and free fatty acid clearance may represent mechanisms explaining beneficial metabolic adaptations with higher muscle fitness. 36 Another potential mechanism, supported by the removal of most of the statistically significant associations when

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Theofanis Tzatzakis, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis Tsimeas, Savvas Kritikos, Athanasios Poulios, Vasiliki C. Laschou, Chariklia K. Deli, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexios Batrakoulis, Georgios Basdekis, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Ioannis G. Fatouros

perform 150 to 250 intense actions during a match, suggesting a high rate of phosphocreatine and carbohydrate utilization through glycolysis also evidenced by muscle glycogen depletion in all types of muscle fibers at the end of a match. 3 Circulating free fatty acids increase during a match, partly due

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

- to 400-m athletes have >60% Type IIx fiber types, while most middle-distance athletes Type I fibers range from 40% to 70% ( Costill et al., 1976 ). ATP = adenosine triphosphate; FFA = free fatty acids; PCr = phosphocreatine; prod. = production. Data adapted from Astrand et al. ( 1986 ), Costill et

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Marco Van Brussel, Bart C. Bongers, Erik H.J. Hulzebos, Marcella Burghard and Tim Takken

. During progressive exercise, VCO 2 increases relative to VO 2 , which translates into an increase in RER, this reflects a shift in substrate utilization from primarily free fatty acids to mainly glucose, as well as buffering H + ions from anaerobic glycolysis ( 47 ). An attained RER of ≥1.00 at VO 2

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce

insulin-stimulated uptake of branched-chain amino acids into the muscle and increasing the ratio of free TRP to branched-chain amino acids, and (c) ingestion of a high-fat meal that may increase free fatty acids and result in increased free Trp, or (d) strenuous exercise causes mobilization of

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

 = hexokinase; p38 = p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, also known as MAPK; PPAR = peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; PGC-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha; PDK4 = pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4; FFA = free-fatty acids. Table 3 Common Sequences in Which CHO

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

-binding domain, increasing free fatty acid availability, changing osmotic pressure in the muscle cell, and increasing catecholamine concentrations. 139 Strategies that restrict exogenous CHO availability also promote an extended signaling response, albeit less robustly than is the case for exercise with low