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Ana Gay, Gracia López-Contreras, Ricardo J. Fernandes and Raúl Arellano

Furthermore, higher efficiency has been observed for long suits (compared with sleeveless or short suits) due to enhanced buoyancy and a reduction in friction drag. 10 Notwithstanding the observed SI differences between suits, η p did not differ, probably because swimmers had to modify their technique

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Mark Glaister, Colin Towey, Owen Jeffries, Daniel Muniz-Pumares, Paul Foley and Gillian McInnes

. Winter EM , Brown D , Roberts NKA , Brookes FBC , Swaine IL . Optimized and corrected peak power output during friction-braked cycle ergometry . J Sports Sci . 1996 ; 14 ( 6 ): 513 – 521 . PubMed ID: 8981290 doi:10.1080/02640419608727738 8981290 10.1080/02640419608727738 15. Durnin JV

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Yumeng Li, He Wang and Kathy J. Simpson

primarily taken up by the ligaments because the friction between the tibia and femur was assumed to be negligible. 35 As the ACL is the primary restraint to anterior translation of the tibia, the posterior tibiofemoral force could correspond to the ACL loading. In other words, the posterior tibiofemoral

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Chadwick Debison-Larabie, Bernadette A. Murphy and Michael W.R. Holmes

induced flexion; attached to the posterior portion of the head, it induced extension; and attached to the sides of the head, it induced left and right lateral bend. The wire (nonresistant fishing wire; Spiderwire; EZ Braid, Columbia, SC) was chosen due to its low friction at the pulley interface and light

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Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Amador García-Ramos, Victor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Juan A. Párraga-Montilla, José A. Morcillo-Losa, Pierre Samozino and Jean-Benoît Morin

changes in running velocity over time, and the net horizontal anteroposterior ground reaction forces could be calculated by considering the body mass of the athlete and aerodynamic friction force. Finally, individual F–V linear relationships were generated by fitting force and velocity data sets with

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Heidi R. Thornton, André R. Nelson, Jace A. Delaney, Fabio R. Serpiello and Grant M. Duthie

full-size rugby league field (68-m width by 100-m length) that was appropriately cut and watered prior to testing to minimize friction of the sled. The athlete wore clothing and footwear that allowed the required movements. Upon completion of the session, files were downloaded and trimmed using

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Abigail M. Tyson, Stefan M. Duma and Steven Rowson

realistic range for contact sports. 11 , 16 , 53 – 55 The NOCSAE headform was preferred over the Hybrid III due to it being a better geometric representation of a human head with lower skin friction. 45 The Hybrid III neck was custom mounted to the NOCSAE headform to improve head-neck positioning 47 and

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono

different designs, inertial mechanisms, manufacturing materials, and friction coefficients. This is the main reason behind the lack of gold standard valid and reliable procedures that objectively determine the magnitude of inertial loads and associated intensities. Future studies are warranted to determine

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Wai-Ting Lo, Kit-Lun Yick, Newman Lau, Lok-Tung Tse, Sun-Pui Ng and Joanne Yip

) 21.1 18.8 Hardness (Shore A) ASTM D 2240 20 32 Coefficient of friction 0.69 0.78 Compression (kPa) ISO 3386-1 1607 13713 Force reduction (%) ASTM D 2632 70.1 54.2 Bending stiffness (N mm) 55.02 22.23 Experimental Protocol The experiment involved two components as shown in Figure  2 ; one in which the

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Tatiane Piucco, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Rogério Soares, Juan M. Murias and Guillaume Y. Millet

skating test is another potential limitation. Skating on a level grade can be technically too difficult and might lead to the test finishing without exerting the highest levels of power due to lack of resistance and small friction. This might be especially true for recreational skaters, hockey players