Prospective interview data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method (Scanlan, Russell, Wilson, & Scanlan, 2003) allow further testing and expansion of the Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan, Carpenter, Schmidt, Simons, & Keeler, 1993) and provide a deeper understanding of the commitment process. We examine the Model constructs of Sport Enjoyment, Involvement Opportunities, Involvement Alternatives, Personal Investments, Social Constraints, and a potential new construct, Social Support, to understand how and under what conditions each of the constructs operates. The data from 15 New Zealand All Black rugby players support the Model predictions, show its generalizability from American youth sport to amateur elite-level New Zealand athletes, and suggest possible Model expansion and modification.
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Kristin P. Beals and Larry A. Scanlan
Russell E. Ward Jr.
Most studies find positive correlations at the individual level of analysis between athletic participation and academic success. One opportunity for scholarship left largely unexplored concerns the effect of athletics on group-level processes. The author used a resource-based perspective to explore the influence of athletic investment on academic achievement at the organizational level. Data were collected from 227 school districts. Multiple regression analyses revealed negative but insignificant relationships between athletic expenditures and indicators of basic skills and college preparation. Future research might determine whether the nonassociation observed in this study between athletic spending and academic performance generalizes to different school settings.
Judith J. Prochaska, James F. Sallis, Donald J. Slymen and Thomas L. McKenzie
One mission of physical education (PE) is the promotion of enjoyable physical activity participation. PE enjoyment of 414 elementary school students (51% male, 77% Caucasian) was examined in a 3-year prospective study. Analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations, PE enjoyment decreased significantly from the fourth to sixth grade (p < .001) and was lower among girls (p < .001) and students not in organized sports (p < .005). Ethnicity and body mass index were not significant predictors of PE enjoyment. Girls, older children, and those not on sports teams are especially dependent on PE as the setting for accruing health-related physical activity, and strategies are needed to enhance their PE enjoyment.
Scott Tainsky, Steven Salaga and Carla Almeida Santos
The scholarship on the economics of individual sports is scant relative to that of team sports. This study advances sport management scholarship, particularly sport economics, by using consumer-theory modeling to estimate Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) pay-per-view purchases. Our generalized linear models show fan preferences for certain weight classes, star fighters, outcome uncertainty and comain event quality factors as well as scheduling preferences for holiday weekends. The popular notion that The Ultimate Fighter reality series served as the impetus for the UFC’s growth is supported in part. The study concludes by showing how the modeling results impact firm revenue generation via fight card characteristics.
B. Adar Emken, Ming Li, Gautam Thatte, Sangwon Lee, Murali Annavaram, Urbashi Mitra, Shrikanth Narayanan and Donna Spruijt-Metz
KNOWME Networks is a wireless body area network with 2 triaxial accelerometers, a heart rate monitor, and mobile phone that acts as the data collection hub. One function of KNOWME Networks is to detect physical activity (PA) in overweight Hispanic youth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in-laboratory recognition accuracy of KNOWME.
Twenty overweight Hispanic participants (10 males; age 14.6 ± 1.8 years), underwent 4 data collection sessions consisting of 9 activities/session: lying down, sitting, sitting fidgeting, standing, standing fidgeting, standing playing an active video game, slow walking, brisk walking, and running. Data were used to train activity recognition models. The accuracy of personalized and generalized models is reported.
Overall accuracy for personalized models was 84%. The most accurately detected activity was running (96%). The models had difficulty distinguishing between the static and fidgeting categories of sitting and standing. When static and fidgeting activity categories were collapsed, the overall accuracy improved to 94%. Personalized models demonstrated higher accuracy than generalized models.
KNOWME Networks can accurately detect a range of activities. KNOWME has the ability to collect and process data in real-time, building the foundation for tailored, real-time interventions to increase PA or decrease sedentary time.
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate coordination difficulties during the learning of novel motor skills; no previous studies, however, have investigated their ability to learn and then generalize a new movement. This study compared 24 young children with DCD with 24 age-matched control children (AMC) during the early stages of learning a simple aiming task. Children with DCD were found to perform more poorly than their peers on measures of acquired motor skill, and to react and move more slowly at every level of task performance. The effect of age and its relationship to practice of the task was also different within each group. The groups did not differ, however, in their rate of learning, or in the extent to which they were able to generalize the learned movement. Children with DCD sacrificed more speed than the AMC group when aiming at a small target, but the effects of amplitude and directional changes were quite similar for each group. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Steven J. Petruzzello and Charles B. Corbin
Research has suggested that females lack self-confidence in their abilities to perform in certain physical activity situations. This "situational vulnerability," however, is not characteristic of all age levels. The present research was designed to determine if situational vulnerability was characteristic of college-age females and to determine if postperformance feedback would enhance self-confidence. Further, the research was designed to determine if feedback-enhanced self-confidence would generalize to a different task. In Study 1, males and females (N=381) rated the gender appropriateness of several motor tasks and made confidence ratings. In Study 2, high and low confidence college-age women (N=69) were tested to determine if feedback increased confidence on a gender-neutral task.. Subjects were then tested for confidence after performing a different task to determine if feedback-produced confidence differences were enduring. The results indicated that both tasks were rated as gender-neutral, but college-age females lacked confidence when compared to males. Feedback did improve confidence for low confidence females, but this feedback-enhanced self-confidence did not generalize to a different motor task. It is suggested that a fourth factor, namely lack of experience, be added to Lenney's (1977) situational vulnerability hypothesis as a factor likely to affect female self-confidence.
Leona Holland, Jeff McCubbin, Ewen Nelson and Robert Steadward
The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of eccentric and concentric strength of adults with cerebral palsy (CP) as measured on the Kin-Corn. Fourteen subjects performed four eccentric and concentric contractions of shoulder adduction and abduction, and knee flexion and extension at a speed of 60°/s during three testing sessions. Peak and average torque were calculated for each type of contraction for each of the four movements. Generalizability coefficients were high for all scores (r = .79 to .96) except average eccentric extension of the knee (r = .26). The variance components revealed that differences between test sessions were large (8.5%–65.8%) compared to the differences between trials (0.0%–5.8%). These data indicate that the Kin-Corn is a reliable mode for testing average and maximal concentric muscular strength, and maximal eccentric contractions on adults with CP, following an initial orientation session.
Jin-Jin Yang and David L. Porretta
Based on Singer’s (1986) method, we investigated the effects of a four-step strategy (ready, look, do, score) on training, maintenance, and generalization of three closed skills (basketball free throw, overhand softball throw, and dart throw) by adolescents (M age = 17.2) with mild mental retardation (MR). A multiple baseline across skills design was used. Performances of 3 males and 3 females across these three skills were examined. Participants averaged a total of 46 sessions for the duration of the study. Results indicated that participants increased performance 18–56% across all three closed skills during the training phase. A total of 4 participants maintained performance on all three skills when reminders were present, and 2 decreased performance when the reminders were removed. All participants exhibited improved performance when a reinforcer was introduced. Moreover, 5 participants were able to generalize the four-step strategy to a different setting.
Douglas A. Haines and Mark E. Raizenne
Models to indirectly estimate minute ventilation (V̇E) from heart rate (HR) monitored during normal activity were developed. VE-to-HR relationships were established from V̇E and HR measured in a graded cycle ergometer test performed by 99 girls, 7-14 years of age. The regression In V̇E = a + (b × HR) was a better predictor of V̇E, when individually determined, than were generalized prediction equations. V̇E, estimated by applying individual VE-to-HR regressions to HR monitored over 10 daytime hours, ranged between 11.5 and 14.5 L·min−1. This is a practical method of estimating V̇E, but further validation of the relationships with HR under various modes of exercise are necessary to improve the prediction in everyday settings.