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Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Kristin P. Beals and Larry A. Scanlan

Prospective interview data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method (Scanlan, Russell, Wilson, & Scanlan, 2003) allow further testing and expansion of the Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan, Carpenter, Schmidt, Simons, & Keeler, 1993) and provide a deeper understanding of the commitment process. We examine the Model constructs of Sport Enjoyment, Involvement Opportunities, Involvement Alternatives, Personal Investments, Social Constraints, and a potential new construct, Social Support, to understand how and under what conditions each of the constructs operates. The data from 15 New Zealand All Black rugby players support the Model predictions, show its generalizability from American youth sport to amateur elite-level New Zealand athletes, and suggest possible Model expansion and modification.

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Scott Tainsky, Steven Salaga and Carla Almeida Santos

The scholarship on the economics of individual sports is scant relative to that of team sports. This study advances sport management scholarship, particularly sport economics, by using consumer-theory modeling to estimate Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) pay-per-view purchases. Our generalized linear models show fan preferences for certain weight classes, star fighters, outcome uncertainty and comain event quality factors as well as scheduling preferences for holiday weekends. The popular notion that The Ultimate Fighter reality series served as the impetus for the UFC’s growth is supported in part. The study concludes by showing how the modeling results impact firm revenue generation via fight card characteristics.

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B. Adar Emken, Ming Li, Gautam Thatte, Sangwon Lee, Murali Annavaram, Urbashi Mitra, Shrikanth Narayanan and Donna Spruijt-Metz

Background:

KNOWME Networks is a wireless body area network with 2 triaxial accelerometers, a heart rate monitor, and mobile phone that acts as the data collection hub. One function of KNOWME Networks is to detect physical activity (PA) in overweight Hispanic youth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in-laboratory recognition accuracy of KNOWME.

Methods:

Twenty overweight Hispanic participants (10 males; age 14.6 ± 1.8 years), underwent 4 data collection sessions consisting of 9 activities/session: lying down, sitting, sitting fidgeting, standing, standing fidgeting, standing playing an active video game, slow walking, brisk walking, and running. Data were used to train activity recognition models. The accuracy of personalized and generalized models is reported.

Results:

Overall accuracy for personalized models was 84%. The most accurately detected activity was running (96%). The models had difficulty distinguishing between the static and fidgeting categories of sitting and standing. When static and fidgeting activity categories were collapsed, the overall accuracy improved to 94%. Personalized models demonstrated higher accuracy than generalized models.

Conclusions:

KNOWME Networks can accurately detect a range of activities. KNOWME has the ability to collect and process data in real-time, building the foundation for tailored, real-time interventions to increase PA or decrease sedentary time.

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Cheryl Missiuna

Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate coordination difficulties during the learning of novel motor skills; no previous studies, however, have investigated their ability to learn and then generalize a new movement. This study compared 24 young children with DCD with 24 age-matched control children (AMC) during the early stages of learning a simple aiming task. Children with DCD were found to perform more poorly than their peers on measures of acquired motor skill, and to react and move more slowly at every level of task performance. The effect of age and its relationship to practice of the task was also different within each group. The groups did not differ, however, in their rate of learning, or in the extent to which they were able to generalize the learned movement. Children with DCD sacrificed more speed than the AMC group when aiming at a small target, but the effects of amplitude and directional changes were quite similar for each group. The implications of these findings are discussed.

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Steven J. Petruzzello and Charles B. Corbin

Research has suggested that females lack self-confidence in their abilities to perform in certain physical activity situations. This "situational vulnerability," however, is not characteristic of all age levels. The present research was designed to determine if situational vulnerability was characteristic of college-age females and to determine if postperformance feedback would enhance self-confidence. Further, the research was designed to determine if feedback-enhanced self-confidence would generalize to a different task. In Study 1, males and females (N=381) rated the gender appropriateness of several motor tasks and made confidence ratings. In Study 2, high and low confidence college-age women (N=69) were tested to determine if feedback increased confidence on a gender-neutral task.. Subjects were then tested for confidence after performing a different task to determine if feedback-produced confidence differences were enduring. The results indicated that both tasks were rated as gender-neutral, but college-age females lacked confidence when compared to males. Feedback did improve confidence for low confidence females, but this feedback-enhanced self-confidence did not generalize to a different motor task. It is suggested that a fourth factor, namely lack of experience, be added to Lenney's (1977) situational vulnerability hypothesis as a factor likely to affect female self-confidence.

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Leona Holland, Jeff McCubbin, Ewen Nelson and Robert Steadward

The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of eccentric and concentric strength of adults with cerebral palsy (CP) as measured on the Kin-Corn. Fourteen subjects performed four eccentric and concentric contractions of shoulder adduction and abduction, and knee flexion and extension at a speed of 60°/s during three testing sessions. Peak and average torque were calculated for each type of contraction for each of the four movements. Generalizability coefficients were high for all scores (r = .79 to .96) except average eccentric extension of the knee (r = .26). The variance components revealed that differences between test sessions were large (8.5%–65.8%) compared to the differences between trials (0.0%–5.8%). These data indicate that the Kin-Corn is a reliable mode for testing average and maximal concentric muscular strength, and maximal eccentric contractions on adults with CP, following an initial orientation session.

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William B. Karper and Thomas J. Martinek

Many issues must be resolved before research on mainstreaming in physical education becomes believable, replicable, and generalizable. Decisions are necessary regarding the standardization of procedures that place atypical students in the mainstream, and clear definitions are needed regarding what constitutes a handicapped student in physical education. Also, agreement is needed on what typifies the makeup of a regular physical education program that serves handicapped students. Additionally, physical education class content and context differs between classes in the same school, making controlled studies nearly impossible to achieve. It is very difficult to select test instruments that are appropriate to both handicapped and nonhandicapped students. Finally, data analysis is a problem because of the unequal numbers of handicapped and nonhandicapped students found in mainstream physical education classes.

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Luke E. Kelly, James H. Rimmer and Richard A. Ness

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the percent body fat of 553 institutionalized mentally retarded adults, ages 18 to 40 yrs, from the Denton State School in Texas. The subjects included 343 males and 210 females. Their percent body fat was estimated with generalized regression equations. Body density for males was measured by the sum of three skinfolds, two girths, and age. Body density for females was measured by the sum of three skinfolds and age. The results from this study revealed that 45.2% of the males and 50.5% of the females were obese. The percent body fat of the female subjects was significantly greater than that of the male subjects. A post hoc analysis revealed that profoundly mentally retarded subjects had significantly lower percent body fat than those subjects functioning at the severe and mild levels. These findings indicate a serious need for more investigation of the caloric intake and expenditure of this population in an institutional environment.

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Seung-oh Choi, Harry J. Meeuwsen, Ron French, Claudine Sherrill and Rozie McCabe

The purpose was to examine whether adults with profound mental retardation (PMR) have the ability to learn and transfer a motor skill to a novel situation. In Experiment 1, novel task transfer performance was examined. Six male adults with PMR threw beanbags three different distances during acquisition, followed by four novel transfer distances and a novel implement (a horse shoe). In Experiment 2, a 48-hr and a 1-week delayed retention test was used with 6 different males with PMR who practiced three beanbag-throwing distances and then performed two familiar and two novel distances for each retention test. Analyses indicated that, with concurrent visual information of the target, adults with PMR can throw accurately on retention and transfer tests and can generalize beanbag throwing skill to horseshoe-throwing. The prototype model of memory representation seems to explain the findings better than the exemplar model. In addition, random practice of skill variations appears to be an effective teaching strategy.

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Leona J. Holland, Marcel Bouffard and Denise Wagner

The reliability of oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at three different workloads was examined during an arm cranking exercise task. Nine persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and confined to a wheelchair each performed two sessions of discontinuous, submaximal aerobic test on an arm ergometer. Comparisons of the test scores and generalizability theory were used to analyze the data. Both HR and VO2 were found to be reliable measures under the conditions used in this study. RPE at the same workloads was found to be rather unreliable. Overall, the use of RPE as an indicator of exercise intensity instead of HR appears to be unjustified by the results of this study. Therefore, practitioners who want a quick and efficient method of measuring exercise intensity should use HR instead of RPE for persons with multiple sclerosis.