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Dawn Scott, Dean Norris and Ric Lovell

professional National Women’s Soccer League (NWSL) in the United States were monitored during the 2016 and 2017 competitive seasons. Physical match performances were quantified via global positioning system (GPS) technology, and wellness ratings were collected on the morning of the match and on the morning of

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Paul G. Montgomery and Brendan D. Maloney

, particularly in field-based sports, where access to global positioning system (GPS) information is not a limiting factor. Combined with inertial-sensor data, wearable technology can assist in defining the external loads players experience during training and competition. Traditionally, basketball, as an indoor

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Martin Buchheit, Mathieu Lacome, Yannick Cholley and Ben Michael Simpson

measurement of stride variables in the field, using global positioning system (GPS)–embedded accelerometers. 9 This approach allows run-based vertical stiffness, which has been shown to be affected by lower-leg muscle fatigue, 10 , 11 to be tracked during any type of runs; maximal efforts are therefore no

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Fergus O’Connor, Heidi R. Thornton, Dean Ritchie, Jay Anderson, Lindsay Bull, Alex Rigby, Zane Leonard, Steven Stern and Jonathan D. Bartlett

also represent a significant risk of soft-tissue injury, particularly if the athlete is not conditioned to undergo maximal sprinting early in the preseason. Developments in commercially available global positioning systems (GPS) allow practitioners to reliably measure maximal velocity when it occurs

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Mathieu Lacome, Ben M. Simpson, Yannick Cholley, Philippe Lambert and Martin Buchheit

strategies or possible performance decrement toward the end of the match. 2 All SSG data were collected in-season on a hybrid turf (DESSO GrassMaster; Tarkett, Nanterre, France) during typical training sessions. Players’ activity was recorded using 5-Hz Global Positioning System (SPI-Pro, Team AMS R1 2016

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Theofanis Tzatzakis, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis Tsimeas, Savvas Kritikos, Athanasios Poulios, Vasiliki C. Laschou, Chariklia K. Deli, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexios Batrakoulis, Georgios Basdekis, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Ioannis G. Fatouros

for 72 hours of recovery. During SEPT, participants consumed only water ad libitum. Field activity during SEPT was recorded using global positioning system (GPS) instrumentation and heart rate monitoring. Throughout the study, participants were instructed to follow their usual diet. Before SEPT, a

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Robert J. Aughey

Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.

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James B. Dear, Michelle M. Porter and A. Elizabeth Ready

This study compared the intensity and energy cost of playing 9 holes of golf with 40 min of lawn mowing in older men and determined whether both met the current recommendations for health benefits. Eighteen men (age 71.2 ± 4.4 yr, BMI 27.3 ± 2.3; M ± SD) completed a graded treadmill test. During golfing and lawn-mowing field tests, oxygen consumption and walking velocity and distance were measured using a portable metabolic system and global positioning system receiver. The net energy costs of golfing and lawn mowing were 310 and 246 kcal, respectively. The average intensities in metabolic equivalents of golfing and lawn mowing were 2.8 ± 0.5 and 5.5 ± 0.9, respectively. Both lawn mowing and golfing met the original intensity and energy expenditure requirements for health benefits specified by the American College of Sports Medicine in 1998, but only lawn mowing met the 2007 intensity recommendations.

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Line Anita Bjørkelund Børrestad, Lars Østergaard, Lars Bo Andersen and Elling Bere

Background:

To provide more accurate assessment of commuting behavior and potential health effect, it is important to have accurate methods. Therefore, the current study aimed to a) compare questionnaire reported mode of commuting with objectively measured data from accelerometer and cycle computer, b) compare moderate vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children cycling vs. walking to school, and c) thus calculate possible underestimated MVPA, when using accelerometers to measure commuter cycling.

Methods:

A total of 78 children, average age 11.4 (SD = 0.5), participated in the study. Physical activity was measured with cycle computers and accelerometers for 4 days. Mode of commuting and demographic information was self-reported in a questionnaire.

Results:

Children who reported to cycle to school spent significantly more time cycling than those who walked to school, 53.6 (SD = ± 33.9) minutes per day vs. 25.5 (SD = ± 24.6) minutes per day (P = .002) (ie, showing that MVPA, measured by accelerometers, underestimated 28.1 minutes per day among children cycling to school vs. those not cycling to school).

Conclusion:

To provide more accurate assessment of active commuting in children and adolescents future studies should incorporate multiple methodologies such as global position systems (GPS), accelerometers, cycle computers, and self-reported measurements.

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Daniel Tan, Brian Dawson and Peter Peeling

Purpose:

This study aimed to quantify the hemolytic responses of elite female football (soccer) players during a typical weekly training session.

Methods:

Ten elite female football players (7 field players [FPs] and 3 goalkeepers [GKs]) were recruited from the Australian National Women’s Premier League and asked to provide a venous blood sample 30 min before and at the immediate conclusion of a typical weekly training session. During this training session, the players’ movement patterns were monitored via a 5-Hz global positioning system. The blood samples collected during the training session were analyzed for iron status via serum ferritin (SF) analysis, and the hemolytic response to training, via serum free hemoglobin (Hb) and haptoglobin (Hp) measurement.

Results:

50% of the participants screened were found to have a compromised iron stores (SF <35 μg/L). Furthermore, the posttraining serum free Hb levels were significantly elevated (P = .011), and the serum Hp levels were significantly decreased (P = .005), with no significant differences recorded between the FPs and GKs. However, the overall distance covered and the movement speed were significantly greater in the FPs.

Conclusions:

The increases in free Hb and decreases in Hp levels provide evidence that a typical team-sport training session may result in significant hemolysis. This hemolysis may primarily be a result of running-based movements in FPs and/or the plyometric movements in GKs, such as diving and tackling.