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Fergus O’Connor, Heidi R. Thornton, Dean Ritchie, Jay Anderson, Lindsay Bull, Alex Rigby, Zane Leonard, Steven Stern and Jonathan D. Bartlett

also represent a significant risk of soft-tissue injury, particularly if the athlete is not conditioned to undergo maximal sprinting early in the preseason. Developments in commercially available global positioning systems (GPS) allow practitioners to reliably measure maximal velocity when it occurs

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Dawn Scott, Dean Norris and Ric Lovell

professional National Women’s Soccer League (NWSL) in the United States were monitored during the 2016 and 2017 competitive seasons. Physical match performances were quantified via global positioning system (GPS) technology, and wellness ratings were collected on the morning of the match and on the morning of

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Martin Buchheit, Mathieu Lacome, Yannick Cholley and Ben Michael Simpson

measurement of stride variables in the field, using global positioning system (GPS)–embedded accelerometers. 9 This approach allows run-based vertical stiffness, which has been shown to be affected by lower-leg muscle fatigue, 10 , 11 to be tracked during any type of runs; maximal efforts are therefore no

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Paul G. Montgomery and Brendan D. Maloney

global positioning system (GPS), inertial sensor, and physiological data to determine the response to each game. As the number of tournament game increases from pool games to quarterfinal (QF), semifinal (SF), and championship (CH) games, the hypothesis was that these parameters would decrease over a

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Mathieu Lacome, Ben M. Simpson, Yannick Cholley, Philippe Lambert and Martin Buchheit

strategies or possible performance decrement toward the end of the match. 2 All SSG data were collected in-season on a hybrid turf (DESSO GrassMaster; Tarkett, Nanterre, France) during typical training sessions. Players’ activity was recorded using 5-Hz Global Positioning System (SPI-Pro, Team AMS R1 2016

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Theofanis Tzatzakis, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis Tsimeas, Savvas Kritikos, Athanasios Poulios, Vasiliki C. Laschou, Chariklia K. Deli, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexios Batrakoulis, Georgios Basdekis, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Ioannis G. Fatouros

for 72 hours of recovery. During SEPT, participants consumed only water ad libitum. Field activity during SEPT was recorded using global positioning system (GPS) instrumentation and heart rate monitoring. Throughout the study, participants were instructed to follow their usual diet. Before SEPT, a

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Robert J. Aughey

Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.

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James B. Dear, Michelle M. Porter and A. Elizabeth Ready

This study compared the intensity and energy cost of playing 9 holes of golf with 40 min of lawn mowing in older men and determined whether both met the current recommendations for health benefits. Eighteen men (age 71.2 ± 4.4 yr, BMI 27.3 ± 2.3; M ± SD) completed a graded treadmill test. During golfing and lawn-mowing field tests, oxygen consumption and walking velocity and distance were measured using a portable metabolic system and global positioning system receiver. The net energy costs of golfing and lawn mowing were 310 and 246 kcal, respectively. The average intensities in metabolic equivalents of golfing and lawn mowing were 2.8 ± 0.5 and 5.5 ± 0.9, respectively. Both lawn mowing and golfing met the original intensity and energy expenditure requirements for health benefits specified by the American College of Sports Medicine in 1998, but only lawn mowing met the 2007 intensity recommendations.

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Dac Minh Tuan Nguyen, Virgile Lecoultre, Yoshiyuki Sunami and Yves Schutz

Background:

Physical activity (PA) and related energy expenditure (EE) is often assessed by means of a single technique. Because of inherent limitations, single techniques may not allow for an accurate assessment both PA and related EE. The aim of this study was to develop a model to accurately assess common PA types and durations and thus EE in free-living conditions, combining data from global positioning system (GPS) and 2 accelerometers.

Methods:

Forty-one volunteers participated in the study. First, a model was developed and adjusted to measured EE with a first group of subjects (Protocol I, n = 12) who performed 6 structured and supervised PA. Then, the model was validated over 2 experimental phases with 2 groups (n = 12 and n = 17) performing scheduled (Protocol I) and spontaneous common activities in real-life condition (Protocol II). Predicted EE was compared with actual EE as measured by portable indirect calorimetry.

Results:

In protocol I, performed PA types could be recognized with little error. The duration of each PA type could be predicted with an accuracy below 1 minute. Measured and predicted EE were strongly associated (r = .97, P < .001).

Conclusion:

Combining GPS and 2 accelerometers allows for an accurate assessment of PA and EE in free-living situations.

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Louise Martin, Anneliese Lambeth-Mansell, Liane Beretta-Azevedo, Lucy A. Holmes, Rachel Wright and Alan St Clair Gibson

Purpose:

Given the paucity of research on pacing strategies during competitive events, this study examined changes in dynamic high-resolution performance parameters to analyze pacing profiles during a multiple-lap mountain-bike race over variable terrain.

Methods:

A global-positioning-system (GPS) unit (Garmin, Edge 305, USA) recorded velocity (m/s), distance (m), elevation (m), and heart rate at 1 Hz from 6 mountain-bike riders (mean ± SD age = 27.2 ± 5.0 y, stature = 176.8 ± 8.1 cm, mass = 76.3 ± 11.7 kg, VO2max = 55.1 ± 6.0 mL · kg−1 . min−1) competing in a multilap race. Lap-by-lap (interlap) pacing was analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA for mean time and mean velocity. Velocity data were averaged every 100 m and plotted against race distance and elevation to observe the presence of intralap variation.

Results:

There was no significant difference in lap times (P = .99) or lap velocity (P = .65) across the 5 laps. Within each lap, a high degree of oscillation in velocity was observed, which broadly reflected changes in terrain, but high-resolution data demonstrated additional nonmonotonic variation not related to terrain.

Conclusion:

Participants adopted an even pace strategy across the 5 laps despite rapid adjustments in velocity during each lap. While topographical and technical variations of the course accounted for some of the variability in velocity, the additional rapid adjustments in velocity may be associated with dynamic regulation of self-paced exercise.