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Courtney W. Hess, Stacy L. Gnacinski and Barbara B. Meyer

among youth ( Richardson et al., 2014 ) and increased functional independence after a traumatic brain injury among adults ( Körner, 2010 ). In the sport domain, sports-medicine practitioners from the United Kingdom reported their practice approach for working with athletes during the 2012 Summer Olympic

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K. Andrew R. Richards and Victoria N. Shiver

-direction with an emphasis on independence and goal setting, and (d) Level IV: Caring about and helping others. Shortly after this series of JOPERD article, Don’s fourth book, A Reflective Approach to Teaching Physical Education , was released with coauthor Thomas Templin ( Hellison & Templin, 1991 ). Herein

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Garry D. Wheeler

The biological area of adapted physical activity research has traditionally been dominated by the positivist or rational empirical paradigm, or the scientific method. Underlying assumptions of the inquirer and inquired’s objectivity and independence have generated much criticism. Researchers have argued that the scientific method produces an impoverished view of reality and that claims to an objective and value-free stance are ideological and mythical. Critique of rational-empiricism, the scientific method, present science, or the received-view may be understood at three levels: intraparadigmatic, extraparadigmatic, and intramethod. Dr. Shephard (1998) addresses the latter in his paper and as such, his is a method-based approach. A methodological analysis, however, requires examining the underlying tacit assumptions of the scientific method. In this paper, critique of the scientific method is offered and justification of the critique examined. Proposed alternatives include an expansionist view of research, inclusion of subjective elements, triangulated designs, and empowerment of subjects.

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Ana I. Sousa, Rui Corredeira and Ana L. Pereira

This study reports on a comparison of how two different groups of people with an amputation view their bodies and perceive how others view them. One group has a history of sport participation, while the other has not. The analysis is based on 14 semistructured interviews with people with amputations: 7 were engaged in sport and 7 were not. The following themes emerged: Body, Prosthesis, Independence, Human Person, and Social Barriers. One could conclude that participation in sport influences how people with an amputation perceive their body as they live with their body in a more positive way and they better accept their new body condition and their being-in-the-world. The social barriers that people with an amputation have to face daily were evident, and one of the most significant ideas was the importance of being recognized and treated as a person and not as a person with a disability.

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Bobbi-Jo Atchison and Donna L. Goodwin

the transition and independence of their children in physical activity environments. However, due to lack of funding flexibility, funds were designated to support activities such as parent respite. Jack explained that parents were encouraged to access public leisure, but to obtain government support

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Bettina Callary, Chelsea Currie and Bradley W. Young

on athletes’ personal growth and development, (d) gradually relinquish control and foster independence, (e) provide opportunities for athletes to solve problems and make decisions, and (f) individualize the coaching process. Lyle ( 2002 ) posited that HC activities engender key qualities of self

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Kwok Ng, Jorma Tynjälä, Dagmar Sigmundová, Lilly Augustine, Mariane Sentenac, Pauli Rintala and Jo Inchley

chi-square test of independence (Table  1 ). Binary logistic regression analyses were performed separately by country, with PARH as the outcome variable and LTID status as the main independent variable. Reporting of odds ratios (ORs), with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs), was performed, first by

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Alice M. Buchanan, Benjamin Miedema and Georgia C. Frey

accompanied by a sibling, parent, or some other support person. In those instances, the parents had to decide just how much independence they were willing to give their child as they considered whether to allow him or her to go alone. For instance, Jackie said that Mark likes to be physically active, and that

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Arya M. Sharma, Donna L. Goodwin and Janice Causgrove Dunn

, that the combination of impairment and weight gain poses health concerns, as a vicious cycle can be created whereby restriction in functioning and independence due to weight gain leads to further reductions in activity levels ( Froehlick-Grobe & Lollar, 2011 ). The downward cycle places people with

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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak and Albert R. Cavalier

Musculoskeletal fitness is important for adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to maintain cardiovascular fitness ( Pitetti & Boneh, 1995 ); daily functional independence ( Oppewal, Hilgenkamp, van Wijck, Schoufour, & Evenhuis, 2014 ); and work task performance ( Shields & Taylor, 2010