experiences and interactions with his teammates. He used the team’s culture to influence group behavior by managing the group’s emotional responses (as well as his own). This athlete used creative approaches to solve problems and demonstrated independence throughout the season. The investigator collected
Philip D. Imholte, Jedediah E. Blanton and Michelle M. McAlarnen
Donna L. Goodwin, David A. Fitzpatrick, Robin Thurmeier and Carol Hall
This phenomenological study explored the decision-making experience of parents whose children joined Special Olympics programs. The experiences of 16 families with children 10-22 years old were gathered through interviews, artifacts, and field notes. Three themes emerged from the thematic analysis (a) thoughtful instruction, (b) finding the fit, and (c) security of acceptance. Parents sought instructors who were interested in building relationships with their children and creating anxiety-free instructional environments for them. A good program fit occurred when instructors had expectations for motor skill development and increased independence. Parents also preferred environments that encouraged meaningful peer interactions. The findings were interpreted within the context of self-determination theory.
Garry D. Wheeler
The biological area of adapted physical activity research has traditionally been dominated by the positivist or rational empirical paradigm, or the scientific method. Underlying assumptions of the inquirer and inquired’s objectivity and independence have generated much criticism. Researchers have argued that the scientific method produces an impoverished view of reality and that claims to an objective and value-free stance are ideological and mythical. Critique of rational-empiricism, the scientific method, present science, or the received-view may be understood at three levels: intraparadigmatic, extraparadigmatic, and intramethod. Dr. Shephard (1998) addresses the latter in his paper and as such, his is a method-based approach. A methodological analysis, however, requires examining the underlying tacit assumptions of the scientific method. In this paper, critique of the scientific method is offered and justification of the critique examined. Proposed alternatives include an expansionist view of research, inclusion of subjective elements, triangulated designs, and empowerment of subjects.
Ana I. Sousa, Rui Corredeira and Ana L. Pereira
This study reports on a comparison of how two different groups of people with an amputation view their bodies and perceive how others view them. One group has a history of sport participation, while the other has not. The analysis is based on 14 semistructured interviews with people with amputations: 7 were engaged in sport and 7 were not. The following themes emerged: Body, Prosthesis, Independence, Human Person, and Social Barriers. One could conclude that participation in sport influences how people with an amputation perceive their body as they live with their body in a more positive way and they better accept their new body condition and their being-in-the-world. The social barriers that people with an amputation have to face daily were evident, and one of the most significant ideas was the importance of being recognized and treated as a person and not as a person with a disability.
Stephen Crowcroft, Katie Slattery, Erin McCleave and Aaron J. Coutts
( P < .05) and the quasi-likelihood under independence model criterion decreased. 21 The predictive probability value of the mean response was calculated automatically in SPSS from the strongest models to assess the probability of both improvements and decrements in performance from the athlete
Laura A. Prieto, Justin A. Haegele and Luis Columna
remaining studies investigated personal and social development, participant’s functioning and psychosocial adjustments, and self-esteem used questionnaires (The World Health Organization Disability Assessment, Functional Independence Measure, Janis–Field Feelings of Inadequacy Scale, Performance Indicators
Bobbi-Jo Atchison and Donna L. Goodwin
the transition and independence of their children in physical activity environments. However, due to lack of funding flexibility, funds were designated to support activities such as parent respite. Jack explained that parents were encouraged to access public leisure, but to obtain government support
Bettina Callary, Chelsea Currie and Bradley W. Young
on athletes’ personal growth and development, (d) gradually relinquish control and foster independence, (e) provide opportunities for athletes to solve problems and make decisions, and (f) individualize the coaching process. Lyle ( 2002 ) posited that HC activities engender key qualities of self
Kwok Ng, Jorma Tynjälä, Dagmar Sigmundová, Lilly Augustine, Mariane Sentenac, Pauli Rintala and Jo Inchley
chi-square test of independence (Table 1 ). Binary logistic regression analyses were performed separately by country, with PARH as the outcome variable and LTID status as the main independent variable. Reporting of odds ratios (ORs), with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs), was performed, first by
Alice M. Buchanan, Benjamin Miedema and Georgia C. Frey
accompanied by a sibling, parent, or some other support person. In those instances, the parents had to decide just how much independence they were willing to give their child as they considered whether to allow him or her to go alone. For instance, Jackie said that Mark likes to be physically active, and that