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Yuta Koshino, Tomoya Ishida, Masanori Yamanaka, Mina Samukawa, Takumi Kobayashi and Harukazu Tohyama

Context:

Identifying the foot positions that are vulnerable to lateral ankle sprains is important for injury prevention. The effects of foot position in the transverse plane on ankle biomechanics during landing are unknown.

Objective:

To examine the effects of toe-in or toe-out positioning on ankle inversion motion and moment during single-leg landing.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Motion analysis laboratory.

Participants:

18 healthy participants (9 men and 9 women).

Interventions:

Participants performed single-leg landing trials from a 30-cm high box under 3 conditions: natural landing, foot internally rotated (toe-in), and foot externally rotated (toe-out).

Main Outcome Measures:

4 toe-in or toe-out angles were calculated against 4 reference coordinates (laboratory, pelvis, thigh, and shank) in the transverse plane. Ankle inversion angle, angular velocity, and external moment in the 200 ms after initial foot-to-ground contact were compared between the 3 landing conditions.

Results:

All toe-in or toe-out angles other than those calculated against the shank were significantly different between each of the 3 landing conditions (P < .001). Ankle inversion angle, angular velocity, and moment were highest during toe-in landings (P < .01), while eversion angle and moment were highest during toe-out landings (P < .001). The effect sizes of these differences were large. Vertical ground reaction forces were not different between the 3 landing conditions (P = .290).

Conclusions:

Toe-in or toe-out positioning during single-leg landings impacts on ankle inversion and eversion motion and moment. Athletes could train not to land with the toe-in positioning to prevent lateral ankle sprains.

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Iraj Derakhshan

–428” contains a laterality-indexed item not sufficiently emphasized by the authors. Using electroencephalography and electromyography as a means for delineating intermanual differences in 25 normal subjects, according to data presented in Tables 2 and 4, the authors found an average electromyography latency of

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James M. May, Alan Nasypany, Julie Paolino, Russell Baker and Jeffrey Seegmiller

Context:

While the incidence and reinjury rates of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) continue to persist at high rates across many sporting activities, further exploration of assessment and treatment beyond the traditional ligamentous and strength/proprioceptive model is warranted. Further, assessing and treating both arthrokinematic and osteokinematic changes associated with LAS can provide insight into a more diverse approach to treating ankle pathology.

Objective:

To examine the clinical use of the Mulligan Concept mobilization with movement (MWM) while treating patients diagnosed with an acute grade I or II LAS through authentic patient care.

Design:

An a priori case series.

Setting:

Intercollegiate athletic training clinic.

Patients:

Intercollegiate patients diagnosed with an acute grade I or II LAS.

Intervention:

The Mulligan Concept distal fibular anterior to posterior MWM.

Main Outcome Measures:

Pain-Intensity Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) with Non-Weight Bearing (NRS-NWB) and Weight Bearing (NRS-WB), Disablement of the Physically Active Scale (DPAscale), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) with Activity of Daily living (FAMM-ADL) and Sport (FAAM-Sport), Client Specific Impairment Measure (CSIM), Y-Balance Composite (YBC), and Weight Bearing Measure for Dorsiflexion (WBDF).

Results:

Patients who are diagnosed with an acute grade I or II LAS and are treated with the Mulligan Concept report immediate and long-lasting minimal clinically important differences in patient outcome measures.

Conclusion:

Clinicians who examine and use the Mulligan Concept MWM to treat acute LAS can expect immediate positive results that are progressively retained over time specific to patient-centered outcome measures as well as functional clinicianbased measures. Based on the immediate and positive results, clinicians should examine associated osteokinematic and arthrokinematic changes beyond that of the traditional ligamentous model.

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Lisa Altamirano, Lydia A. Futch and M. Alan Spooner

Column-editor : R. Barry Dale

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John E. Kovaleski, Sheri J. Kovaleski and Albert W. Pearsall

Column-editor : R. Barry Dale

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Gilles Dietrich, Alan Mark Wing, Martine Gilles and Ian Nimmo-Smith

This paper presents a conceptual model for studying the contribution of each leg to sideways stability of a four-link biped. It was assumed that a linear feedback controller maintained balance with torque related to the deviation from a reference value of the angle made by the trunk with the vertical. Predictions for ground reaction forces produced in resisting sideways push at the pelvis, based on simulation using a simple linear controller, are presented for two special cases (using one or both legs). This simple model was then compared to experimental data in which participants were asked to resist a sideways push. It was observed that all participants employed a strategy in which one leg was used to develop the force response. With this simple model, it was possible to simulate different kinds of responses to the balance perturbation. This model could be considered the first step of a more complex model in order to include specific components related to physiological parameters.

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Aaron MacDonald, Darren Johnson, Barton Branam and Michael Krueger

Edited by R. Barry Dale

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Lauren C. Olmsted-Kramer and Jay Hertel

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Kelli R. Snyder and Todd A. Evans

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Mark A. McDonald and Kirsty Spence