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Nathan A. Lewis, Andrew J. Simpkin, Sarah Moseley, Gareth Turner, Mark Homer, Ann Redgrave, Charles R. Pedlar and Richard Burden

illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games . Br J Sports Med . 2018 ; 52 ( 1 ): 47 – 53 . PubMed ID: 29056598 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-098208 29056598 10.1136/bjsports-2017-098208 15. Lewis NA , Newell J , Burden R

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Thomas Sawczuk, Ben Jones, Mitchell Welch, Clive Beggs, Sean Scantlebury and Kevin Till

URI incidence alone. Such a finding is perhaps unsurprising given the multifactorial risk factors of URI, including low energy availability, which can compromise immunity within 2 days, 32 poor sleep, which influences immune function via the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, 33 environmental

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Clementine Grandou, Lee Wallace, Aaron J. Coutts, Lee Bell and Franco M. Impellizzeri

energy availability resulting in relative energy deficiency in sport may have contributed to a decline in performance that the participants unknowingly interpreted as “unexplained underperformance.” Future studies are required to understand eating patterns as additional stressors in relation to

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Helen G. Hanstock, Andrew D. Govus, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Anna K. Melin, Øystein Sylta and Monica K. Torstveit

-reported upper-respiratory symptoms (URS) or upper-respiratory illness (URI) in athletes. High training loads are commonly associated with immunological disturbances, such as decreases in salivary immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA)-secretion rate, 7 , 8 and elevated cortisol levels. 7 Furthermore, low energy

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

immunodepression can occur as a result of strenuous exercise ( Castell et al., 2019 ; Peake et al., 2017 ), and a high incidence of upper respiratory tract illness is frequently reported ( Drew et al., 2018 ; Nieman, 1994 ), before and particularly after endurance events. Low-energy availability has been

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

suggest that increased nutritional intake, reduction in excessive exercise, or a combination of both remedied low energy availability and facilitated strength improvements. In the full sample, VO 2 max and vertical jump did not significantly differ from admission to discharge. VO 2 max was measured via

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

correct low energy availability, poor iron status, or other nutrient deficiencies as these may alter performance of some protocols and/or the response to supplements. Note that vegetarians may respond differently to supplemental ingredients that are low in their diets (e.g., creatine, carnitine, and b

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

Metabolism, 27 ( 4 ), 351 – 360 . doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0316 10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0316 Heikura , I.A. , Uusitalo , A.L.T. , Stellingwerff , T. , Bergland , D. , Mero , A.A. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2018 ). Low energy availability is difficult to assess but outcomes have large impact on bone injury

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

.M. ( 2018 ). Low energy availability is difficult to assess but outcomes have large impact on bone injury rates in elite distance athletes . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28 ( 4 ), 403 – 411 . PubMed ID: 29252050 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0313 10.1123/ijsnem.2017

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes and Guilherme G. Artioli

detrimental effects on growth and maturation due to sustained periods of low energy availability ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, RWL is associated with abnormal eating behaviors ( Oppliger et al., 2003 ), and weight-category athletes display a higher prevalence of eating disorders ( Sundgot