This article focuses on the dominant meanings given by coaches and managers to “performance” in Dutch (amateur) sport clubs and how such meanings contribute to organizational processes related to (the intersection of) gender and race/ethnicity. We use the results of six studies conducted in (amateur) sport organizations in the Netherlands for this discussion/exploration. We argue that the relatively slow increase in the number of women and ethnic minorities in leadership positions can in part be explained by the dominant meanings given to “performance.” We also show how the salience of the intersection between gender and race/ethnicity is situation-specific.
Annelies Knoppers and Anton Anthonissen
Forrest J. Berghorn, Norman R. Yetman and William E. Hanna
This article examines the relationship, over time, between the analytically separable phenomena of interracial participation and racial integration in intercollegiate basketball. A large sample of NCAA men’s and women’s teams is analyzed to determine trends between 1958 and 1985 in levels of racial participation, degrees of equal opportunity for blacks, and the extent of racial “stacking.” Comparisons are made among NCAA divisions, geographical regions, public and private schools, and men’s and women’s basketball. The findings support Kanter’s (1977) general proposition that the proportion of a minority group’s representation in an organization is an important dimension of that organization’s life.
Dana M. Williams
The purpose of this research was to explore support for Native American sports nicknames. A survey of students at the University of North Dakota, a school with substantial Native student enrollment, was conducted to determine support or opposition to the school’s “Fighting Sioux” nickname and logo. A majority of Native American and a minority of White students thought that the nickname conveyed disrespect and argued for change. Although the study was situated within Bonilla-Silva’s theory of “new racism,” the results indicated that a frame of color-blind racism provided an inadequate explanation of attitudes toward these nicknames.
In this essay I argue that predictions for the future of the philosophy of sport (as well as kinesiology as a whole) are complicated by at least three factors. These include the emergence of what I identify as “minority voices,” the fact that appearances deceive and that going “backwards” sometimes results in moving forwards, and the emerging realization that those of us in seemingly independent research silos are actually interrelated. Philokinesiologists cannot predict where they are going without knowing where physiokinesiologists, biomeckinesiologists, pedekinesiologists, and others are moving, and visa versa. I describe this uncertain journey as an exciting adventure, one that is made all the more interesting because we will be traveling together.
John M. Dunn
An historical view of the life and contributions of Hollis Francis Fait to the field of special physical education is presented in this article. Dr. Fait’s childhood, education, and early career are explored as well as his success in developing at the University of Connecticut one of the first graduate programs to train physical educators to work with the handicapped. Dr. Fait’s perspectives on athletics, administration, minorities, and scholarship are described. His belief in the need for concise language and clarity of thought demonstrated in his own scholarship is discussed.
Cathy van Ingen
The study of therapeutic landscapes (locations where place works as a vector of well-being) has generated substantial international interest. Drawing from Henri Lefebvre’s prolific writings on space, this article extends the concept of “landscapes of social relations” as an often-overlooked form of therapeutic landscapes. Consequent to this undertaking, this article examines the health experiences of members of the Toronto Front Runners, a running club for sexual minorities. Specifically, I underline the need for an interpretive analysis that examines notions of pluralism, multiple voices, and difference within therapeutic landscapes in order to highlight the ways in which social inequalities affect health.
Jed Friend and Arnold LeUnes
Recently the issue of fairness in the recruitment, selection, and placement aspects of personnel management for professional baseball teams has been questioned. The only seemingly correct solution to the lack of minorities in sport management positions has been oriented toward developing and implementing affirmative action programs. This paper discusses an approach to affirmative action that emphasizes (a) job analysis, (b) job descriptions, and (c) prediction of managerial performance. It therefore serves as a caveat for those organizations that feel an adequate affirmative action policy, as a single entity, is the proper remedy for correcting past discriminatory hiring decisions.
R. Saylor Breckenridge and Pat Rubio Goldsmith
We examine the effect of the visibility of African American, Latino, and Jewish baseball players on attendance at Major League Baseball games between 1930 and 1961. We invoke the sociological concepts of “social distance,” “spectacle,” and “group threat” and incorporate data focusing on the era of integration to expand on previous research in this arena. Notably, African American and Latino player visibility—but not that of other groups—is revealed to increase attendance at games. This effect weakens for losing teams and in cities with relatively larger minority populations. The findings suggest a synthesis of theories is possible.
This study centers upon accounts of master women coaches in the UK, connecting the participants’ experiences of the structural practices within the coaching profession to their feelings of being undervalued and marginalized. By going beyond previous positivist and interpretive approaches to the issue of women coaches’ underrepresentation, I locate the participants’ narratives and their oppression within the wider sociocultural context of sport. The strength of patriarchy within sport and coaching is revealed in the private lives of the coaches. Consequently, the findings provoke methodological and theoretical implications for an alternative approach to understanding women’s long standing minority status within sports leadership.
Susanne James-Burdumy, Nicholas Beyler, Kelley Borradaile, Martha Bleeker, Alyssa Maccarone and Jane Fortson
The Playworks program places coaches in low-income urban schools to engage students in physical activity during recess. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of Playworks on students’ physical activity separately for Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white students.
Twenty-seven schools from 6 cities were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Accelerometers were used to measure the intensity of students’ physical activity, the number of steps taken, and the percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during recess. The impact of Playworks was estimated by comparing average physical activity outcomes in treatment and control groups.
Compared with non-Hispanic black students in control schools, non-Hispanic black students in Playworks schools recorded 338 more intensity counts per minute, 4.9 more steps per minute, and 6.3 percentage points more time in MVPA during recess. Playworks also had an impact on the number of steps per minute during recess for Hispanic students but no significant impact on the physical activity of non-Hispanic white students.
The impact of Playworks was larger among minority students than among non-Hispanic white students. One possible explanation is that minority students in non-Playworks schools typically engaged in less physical activity, suggesting that there is more room for improvement.