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Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves and Marcelo Tavella Navega

of torque development group differences is similar to strength differences as rate of torque development is influenced by the change in muscle force over time, which depends on muscle size, muscle-tendon unit stiffness, and muscle fiber-type distribution. 16 The group differences were larger for

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Afshin Samani and Mathias Kristiansen

velocity. This variable has received very little scientific interest despite its purported importance in developing strength and muscle size and reducing body fat ( Hunter, Seelhorst, & Snyder, 2003 ; Westcott, Winett, Anderson, & Wojcik, 2001 ). In this study, we compared the extent of intrasubject

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Lauren A. Burt, David A. Greene and Geraldine A. Naughton

greater bone strength, muscle size, and function in pre- and early pubertal girls . Osteoporos Int . 2012 ; 23 : 1277 – 86 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s00198-011-1677-z. 10.1007/s00198-011-1677-z 21660556 6. Burt LA , Naughton GA , Higham DG , Landeo R . Training load in pre-pubertal female

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono

JD , Pozzo M , Tesch PA . Resistance training using eccentric overload induces early adaptations in skeletal muscle size . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2008 ; 102 ( 3 ): 271 – 281 . PubMed ID: 17926060 doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0583-8 17926060 10.1007/s00421-007-0583-8 41. Vicens-Bordas J , Esteve

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Damien Moore, Adam I. Semciw, Jodie McClelland, Henry Wajswelner and Tania Pizzari

. Decreased whole muscle size of the GMin is known to occur before the larger overlaying gluteus medius in people with hip osteoarthritis 17 , 18 and lateral hip pain 19 illustrating its importance in normal hip joint health. However, targeted atrophy of the anterior GMin has been identified in aging 20

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Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung and Jong Kook Song

, including increased muscle size ( Sato et al., 2005 ), neuromuscular coordination ( Bischoff-Ferrari et al., 2004 ), improved immune system ( He et al., 2016 ), and anti-inflammatory response ( Choi et al., 2013 ). Nevertheless, the role of vitamin D on the performance outcomes is still unclear in athletic

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Simon Gavanda, Stephan Geisler, Oliver Jan Quittmann and Thorsten Schiffer

mentioned study used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while this study used ultrasound. Unlike the study with trained women by Bartolomei et al, 25 which found increases in cross-sectional area only in the weekly undulating periodization group for thigh muscle size, this study showed similar increases in

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul and Dustin L. Crouch

muscle output that accounts for both muscle size and muscle activation and permits comparison among movements of different durations: E ˙ m = ∑ t i t f a m ( t ) 2 · F o m ( l , l ˙ ) t i − t f . (2) In Equation  2 , a m ( t ) is the muscle activation magnitude as a function of time, t ; and F 0 m

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Trent J. Herda, Philip M. Gallagher, Jonathan D. Miller, Matthew P. Bubak and Mandy E. Parra

, Sterczala AJ , Miller JD , et al . Sex-related differences in muscle size explained by amplitudes of higher-threshold motor unit action potentials and muscle fibre typing . Acta Physiol . 2019 ; 225 ( 4 ): e13151 . PubMed ID: 29908102 doi: 10.1111/apha.13151 52. Turchiano M , Nguyen C

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Ece Acar, Tamer Çankaya and Serkan Öner

, T. , Misaki , J. , Tsuchikane , R. , Tanaka , D. , . . . Isaka , T. ( 2017 ). Applicability of ultrasonography for evaluating trunk muscle size: A pilot study . Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 29 ( 2 ), 245 – 249 . PubMed ID: 28265150 doi:10.1589/jpts.29.245 10.1589/jpts.29