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Nancy Quinn, Laura Misener and P. David Howe

was expressed by some parasport athletes during interviews in some spaces—at the poolside, in the cafeteria, walking the streets of The Village . Staring at the impaired body in these spaces was normalized by some athletes. Others spoke of greater bodily ease and comradery with competitors in

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Maya Maor

-Canyon, 2016 ). Participants of this age group tend to suppress feelings, deny weakness, normalize pain; while men of older age groups (65 and up) are more likely to practice sports in a more moderate mode, displaying some sense of a relaxation of hegemonic masculinity ( Levy, Hollander, & Noy-Canyon, 2016

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Earl Smith and Angela J. Hattery

expropriation that has now become normalized as a routine activity inside the hip-hop and SportsWorld relationship ( Bukowski, 2008 ). The exploitation of the Black athlete has been examined thoroughly ( Edwards, 1969 ). There is extant literature on hip-hop and sports ( Francis, 2017 ), but there needs to be

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Jamie Cleland

have done, according to Toohey ( 2008 ), is to condition societies to more heightened levels of security and surveillance. Societies then subsequently become normalized to terrorism prevention, thus leading to the creation of a “safety state.” To illustrate this even further, following the attempted

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Steve Booth Marston

notions of the black populace (as nonproductive, pathologically degenerate, and/or disposable) are constructed and effectively normalized. These athletes’ carefully choreographed racial atypicality thus essentializes urban black populations and cultures, casting them as effects of a pathological indolence

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Madison Ardizzi, Brian Wilson, Lyndsay Hayhurst and Janet Otte

wanted a bicycle—and men had more stigma toward the virus than woman. Therefore, these initiatives could work to decrease stigma in the community, encourage individuals to get checked, and normalize the experiences of those with HIV/AIDS. However, at the same time that the bicycle was described

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Matt C. Crockett and Ted Butryn

, surveillance, normalization, and self-monitoring ( Foucault, 1977 ; Markula & Pringle, 2006 ). These ideas interpreted the architecture and division of sport spaces as disciplining forces that subtly encouraged, or even blatantly coerced, the body to function in line with normative discourses. Vertinsky

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Matthew Lamont and Sheranne Fairley

perceive this mode of alcohol consumption as normalized. Indeed, the excerpt of online discussion below suggests that the Beer Mile was a stand-out memory of the Ironman experience for this competitor’s children: Yep, count me in again. Loved it last year. And so did my kids … Funny that the beer mile got

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Jack Thomas Sugden, Daryl Adair, Nico Schulenkorf and Stephen Frawley

-cultural separatism, political instability as a reflection of that, and the normalization of group differences and distance—Indigenous and Indian—through the sports of rugby and soccer respectively. In addition to dialogue, my observations in the field prompted some unexpected outcomes. I had read that Fijian soccer

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Marianne I. Clark and Holly Thorpe

emerging researcher and a senior academic employ “diffraction as an experimental practice to undo the normalized practices of academic writing by weaving together various kinds of texts” (p. 627). In her diffractive readings of the documented processes of doing collaborative analysis during her doctoral