The level of participation and degree of excellence attained within a given sport is dependent, at least in part, on how that sport is organized. Sport has traditionally been organized in an ad hoc way, relying on volunteers who were committed to the particular sport. It is now clear that to encourage higher levels of participation and international excellence, new ideas about organizing need to be diffused to those involved in the management of sport. The literature from the business environment demonstrates that the process of innovation requires, first, that new ideas be diffused to organizations and, second, that these ideas then be translated via a process of organizational change within the adopting organization so that their usage is appropriate. This literature demonstrates that these processes of diffusion and appropriation are problematic and heavily dependent on the contextual features of the adopting organization. This paper presents a framework for understanding these diffusion and appropriation processes within sportorganizations and emphasizes the importance of inter organizational networks.
Sue Newell and Jacky Swan
Inge Claringbould and Annelies Knoppers
The gender ratio of those in positions of leadership continues to be skewed toward a male majority. The purpose of this study is to explore how practices of gender may contribute to the lack of significant change in this skewed ratio in (sport) organizations. We situate our study within Martin’s (2003, 2006) notion of practices of gender. We conducted interviews with 15 sport journalists and 32 members of boards of governance of sport organizations to investigate how the skewed gender ratio was maintained and challenged by paradoxical practices of gender. The results show that practices of gender neutrality, normalcy and passivity strengthened and maintained the current gender skewness. We also give examples of disruptive practices that contributed to the undoing of gender in these organizations.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Andrew D. Eberline and Thomas J. Templin
Secondary professional socialization is a phase of occupational socialization theory that focuses on graduate education in preparation for a career in academia. Due to the need to present and publish research and make professional contacts, professional organizations likely serve an important socializing function during graduate education. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand graduate students’ perspectives of participating in professional organizations. Participants included 16 health and physical education graduate students who shared their experiences in focus group interviews. Data were analyzed using constant comparison and inductive analysis. Results indicate graduate students become involved in professional organizations primarily due to faculty encouragement. Participants highlighted networking as a benefit of involvement, and viewed professional learning and opportunities to present research as important to their career development. Results are discussed through the lens of occupational socialization theory, and limitations and implications for graduate student training are shared.
Jean Côté and John H. Salmela
The purpose of this study was to report the knowledge used by expert high-performance gymnastic coaches in the organization of training and competition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 9 coaches who worked with male gymnasts and 8 coaches who worked with female gymnasts. Qualitative analyses showed that coaches of males and coaches of females planned training similarly, except that coaches of females appeared to emphasize esthetic and nutritional issues to a greater extent. Coaches of males revealed more concerns about the organization of gymnasts’ physical conditioning. Analysis indicated that expert gymnastic coaches of males and females are constantly involved in dynamic social interactions with gymnasts, parents, and assistant coaches. Many areas of coaches’ organizational work, such as dealing with the athletes’ personal concerns and working with parents, are not part of the structure of coaches’ training programs and emerged as crucial tasks of expert gymnastic coaches for developing elite gymnasts.
John Fizel and James F. Fairbank
We used the pressure-opportunity model of organizational misconduct to examine the antecedents and extent of oversigning among NCAA Division 1 (Bowl Championship Series) football programs. The model incorporates organizational and environmental pressures, opportunities, and predispositions. The data sample spans 10 years, with the total sample of teams in a given year varying from 114 to 120, with a total of 1,155 annual team observations. We found that only environmental factors were significant antecedents for oversigning. We discuss our results in the context of possible reasons why the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) ignores enforcement of its bylaws.
This paper suggests the usefulness of a general theoretical framework based on the model of strategic analysis elaborated by Crazier and Friedberg (1977/1980). This sociological theory allows for the understanding of complex sport organizations by the study of strategies and power relationships within them. The theory is linked to a restricted phenomenological method that can be used to discover the material, structural, and human conditions that limit and define the rationality of organizational actors, and thereby the meaning of their observable behaviors. Theory and method are explicated, and the paper concludes with an empirical example of the use of strategic analysis for the study of amateur sport federations.
Jennifer Y. Mak and Chong Kim
Leadership development is important for society, and participating in athletics and student organizations has provided opportunities for young adults to develop and display leadership qualities (Dobosz & Beaty, 1999; Knoppers, 2011; Todd & Kent, 2004; Williams, Roberts, & Bosselman, 2011). The empirical research examining the leadership development through athletics and student organizations involvement has, unfortunately, been limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify and investigate the relationship among gender, athletic involvement, and student organization involvement in relation to transformational leadership skills. Stratified random sampling and the Salant and Dillman (1994) survey methodology procedure were adopted for data collection. Data were collected from 992 college students (493 females and 495 males) in a Mid-Atlantic university. The Transformational Leadership Scale (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2004) was used as the instrument to measure the variables. Descriptive statistics and factorial ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results showed significant differences existed among gender, athletic involvement, and student organization involvement in relation to transformational leadership skills. Females, athletes, and student officers received significantly higher scores than males, nonathletes and nonstudent officers in transformational leadership.
Katie Misener and Alison Doherty
As a pivotal part of the nonprofit and voluntary sector, community sport organizations provide opportunities for active participation, social engagement, and community cohesion. This study examined the nature and impact of organizational capacity in one nonprofit community sport club to identify factors that affect the ability of this organization to fulfill its mandate and provide sport opportunities in the community. Hall et al.’s (2003) multidimensional framework of human resources, financial, relationships/ networks, infrastructure and process, and planning and development capacity was used. The study incorporated interviews with board members and coaches as well as active-member researcher observations (Adler & Adler, 1987). Key strengths and challenges of each capacity dimension were uncovered, and connections among the dimensions were revealed. The relatively greater importance of human resources and planning and development capacity for goal achievement was identified. The findings support the use of a multidimensional approach for generating a comprehensive understanding of organizational capacity in community sport, and for identifying where and how capacity may be enhanced.
Ryan K. Zapalac, John J. Miller and Kelsey C. Miller
handy as she was able to build and manage a strong fan base at each of the three organizations with which she held positions. An opportunity to advance was realized when one of the crown jewels of Minor League Baseball (MiLB), the Sacramento River Cats, announced that they were searching for a new
Milena M. Parent and Peter O. Foreman
Although identity, image, and reputation are important issues for the sport management field, little research has examined how sport organizations construct and manage such intangible yet critical aspects of their organizations. This article addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the process of identity construction within organizing committees of major sporting events. The insights gained from two case studies indicate that committees draw on three types of identity referents: the nature of the event, context, and key individuals of organizing committees. These referents are projected as images from the organizing committee to various stakeholder groups and then reflected back to the organizing committee. In addition, images are often received by stakeholders through indirect channels of transmission, especially the media, further complicating the process of image and identity management. Finally, organizing committees attempt to manage the process primarily via verbal and symbolic communication strategies.