Findings from three research paradigms that employed aerobic exercise as an independent variable were used to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise improves cognitive-neuropsychological functioning. The research paradigms were animal intervention studies, cross-sectional human studies, and human intervention studies. Results from studies of animals, usually rodents, provide consistent evidence that aerobic fitness is associated with improved neurobiological and behavioral functioning. Cross-sectional studies with humans indicate a strong positive association between physical activity level and cognitive-neuropsychological performance. However, results from these studies must be interpreted cautiously, as individuals who elect to exercise or not exercise may differ on other variables that could influence cognitive-neuropsychological performance. To date, human intervention studies have not consistently demonstrated cognitive-neuropsychological improvements following exercise training. To satisfactorily test the exercise/cognition hypothesis with humans, carefully controlled intervention studies that last longer than those previously employed are needed.
Robert E. Dustman, Rita Emmerson and Donald Shearer
Robin S. Vealey
In a previous review of the literature between 1950 and 1973, sport personology—the study of personality theory and research in sport—was examined with regard to paradigmatic and methodological issues (Martens, 1975). This study follows up and extends that article by examining trends and issues that have developed in sport personology since that time. A content analysis of the sport personality research published in selected journals and proceedings between 1974 and 1987 was made with regard to paradigm, methodological considerations, and objectives. The results indicated that sport personology has shifted paradigmatically from the trait paradigm to interactionism, but the cognitive interactional approach has overshadowed the trait-state interactional approach. Methodological trends included an emphasis on correlational methods and field research. With regard to research objectives, most studies focused on description and prediction with only a few studies focused on intervention.
Yu Kyoum Kim and Galen Trail
Sport consumers are increasingly discontented and disconnected with sport organizations and researchers have advocated a fundamental shift in sport marketing from a traditional exchange paradigm to a relationship paradigm. Relationship quality is critical to understanding sport consumer-organization relationships because it can: (a) render a platform to organize wide-ranging relational constructs; (b) provide insight into evaluating relationship-marketing effectiveness; and (c) diagnose and address problems in relationships. Therefore, we propose a conceptual framework of sport consumer-organization relationship quality that consists of three main components. First, we specify that relationship quality consists of five distinct but related relational constructs (trust, commitment, intimacy, self-connection, and reciprocity). Second, we suggest that relationship quality influences word of mouth, media consumption, licensed-product consumption, and attendance behaviors. Finally, we argue that psychographic factors such as relationship styles, relationship drive, and general interpersonal orientation are moderators, as well as demographic factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, region, and income.
Andrew Friesen and Terry Orlick
Incorporating the holistic development of the athlete into an applied sport psychology intervention has been addressed in the literature (e.g., Bond, 2002; Ravizza, 2002). How sport psychology consultants actually practice holistic sport psychology remains unclear. The purpose of this research was to provide a clarification as to what holistic sport psychology is and examine the beliefs, values, theoretical paradigms, and models of practice of holistic sport psychology consultants’ professional philosophies (Poczwardowski, Sherman, & Ravizza, 2004). Qualitative interviews with five purposefully selected holistic sport psychology consultants were conducted. In general, holistic consulting can be interpreted to mean: (a) managing the psychological effects to the athlete’s performance from nonsport domains; (b) developing the core individual beyond their athletic persona; and (c) recognizing the dynamic relationship between an athlete’s thoughts, feelings, physiology, and behavior. The corresponding beliefs, values, theoretical paradigms, and models of practice of holistic consultants were also presented.
Richard J. Jagacinski, Karl M. Newel1 and Paul D. Isaac
A signal detection paradigm was used to measure the sensitivity of basketball players in discriminating successful from unsuccessful shots. College-level basketball players predicted a shot's outcome either before release of the ball, immediately after release, or after seeing the ball travel halfway to the basket. In none of these conditions did active shooters exhibit greater sensitivity than passive observers. Some evidence was found for sequential dependencies in shooting performance, though not to the degree that one might expect from basketball lore.
Critical social science is an underused paradigm in sport management. It can, however, help reveal the bad and ugly sides of sport, so we can uncover new ways to promote the good sides of it. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the relevance of this paradigm for sport management teaching, practice, and research. A key assumption of the critical paradigm is that organizations are best viewed as operating in a wider cultural, economic, and political context characterized by asymmetrical power relations that are historically entrenched. Research is not neutral because the goal is to promote social change by challenging dominant ways of thinking and acting that benefit those in power. Conducting critical sport management research requires a specific skill set and adequate training is essential. Drawing on the work of Alvesson and Deetz (2000), the three tasks required to conduct critical social science are insight, critique, and transformative redefinition. These tasks are described and a number of sport-related examples are provided.
Diane L. Gill
The feminist paradigm has been advocated as an appropriate alternative framework for sport psychology theory and research. The current paper extends the feminist perspective to sport psychology practice, particularly to educational consultation. Application of a feminist perspective to sport psychology practice requires (a) an awareness of relevant gender scholarship and valuing of the female perspective, (b) a shift in focus from the personal to the social, and (c) an egalitarian, process-oriented approach. Applying the feminist perspective implies not only an awareness of relevant sport psychology scholarship but also a commitment to action to educate and empower sport participants.
Harriet G. Williams and Jeanmarie R. Burke
A conditioned patellar tendon reflex paradigm was used to study the contributions of crossed spinal and supraspinal inputs to the output of the alpha motoneuron pool in children with and without developmental coordination disorders. The basic patellar tendon reflex response was exaggerated in children with developmental coordination disorders. Crossed spinal and supraspinal influences on the excitability of the alpha motoneuron pool were similar in both groups of children. However, there was evidence of exaggerated crossed spinal and supraspinal inputs onto the alpha motoneuron pool in individual children with developmental coordination disorder.
A. Craig Fisher
An individual differences approach to multidimensional scaling is outlined from the perspective of the modern interactional paradigm. The applicability of the individual differences model to anxiety research in sport settings is demonstrated. The model offers the advantage that both individual athlete data and group athlete data are revealed in the analysis simultaneously, without either analysis restricting the other. Representations of the structure in sport anxiety data matrices are unlocked by the individual differences model. Additional applications of the model to sport psychology research topics are offered.
Dae Hee Kwak, Stephen McDaniel and Ki Tak Kim
The current study revisited the satisfaction-loyalty paradigm in a hedonic consumption context that involves a learning component. In particular, this study involved actual users (N = 328) of a specific sport video game (FIFA soccer), to examine the structural relationships among the constructs of: game satisfaction, hedonic attitudes toward the brand, gaming skill, and brand loyalty. Contrary to existing research in this area, SEM results indicated that customer satisfaction did not have a direct effect on loyalty. The relationship between game satisfaction and loyalty was mediated by positive brand attitudes and perceived gaming skill. The applied and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed along with limitations and future directions for research.