In this essay I argue that predictions for the future of the philosophy of sport (as well as kinesiology as a whole) are complicated by at least three factors. These include the emergence of what I identify as “minority voices,” the fact that appearances deceive and that going “backwards” sometimes results in moving forwards, and the emerging realization that those of us in seemingly independent research silos are actually interrelated. Philokinesiologists cannot predict where they are going without knowing where physiokinesiologists, biomeckinesiologists, pedekinesiologists, and others are moving, and visa versa. I describe this uncertain journey as an exciting adventure, one that is made all the more interesting because we will be traveling together.
Alison J. Armstrong-Doherty
Interuniversity athletic departments face an ever-increasing number and complexity of factors in their environment, which may impact on their organizational activities to varying degrees. The head athletic directors at 34 of the 45 (76%) Canadian Interuniversity Athletic Union (CIAU) member institutions rated the degree of control of 15 environmental elements over seven basic activities of the athletic department. The athletic department was perceived to function relatively independent of broad environmental control, with the exception of establishing and supporting a philosophy of interuniversity athletics. It appears that perceived control is a multidimensional phenomenon that varies across the environmental elements and the activities of the athletic department.
The psychological and social sciences search for laws of human behavior. Traditionally, this search has been seen as an empirical or methodological issue. But the philosophers Donald Davidson and John Searle have each argued that such laws are conceptually impossible. If their views are sound, the search for social or psychological laws is not merely very difficult, it is futile. Their cases against such laws are outlined; however, neither Davidson nor Searle has supported the radical version of his conclusion—that psychological and social sciences cannot be sciences. Some concluding comments on the nature of modem philosophy and philosophical debate are provided.
This paper presents an alternative rationale, other than compliance with PL 94-142, for implementing the integration of handicapped and nonhandicapped students in physical education. Support for integration is related to Lawrence Kohlberg’s (1971, 1984) stages of moral development. Integration is discussed in terms of the three major philosophical positions (pragmatism, idealism, and realism) as described by Davis (1963), Van Dalen (1975), and Webster (1965). Support for integration, although for different reasons and to different degrees, can be found in each philosophy. The paper illustrates an exercise in the clarification of values that can be replicated by readers.
Jodi Yambor and Deidre Connelly
This article discusses issues related to the delivery of personal and performance enhancement consulting services to male student-athletes by female sport psychology consultants. A holistic, developmental, educational philosophy is described as a basis for providing services. Ethics, delivery, and consultant effectiveness are discussed relative to the male client/female consultant situation. A number of prevalent attitudes and stereotypes that may present obstacles to the successful delivery of services are discussed, along with the authors’ experiences and suggested tactics to minimize or confront and cope with these potential barriers.
Charles M. Tipton
Within the archives of Springfield College are the unofficial minutes of the Gulick Academy of Physical Education from 1906–1909. Surprisingly, the attendance, participation, and presentations of Clark W. Hetherington were not very impressive, which raised the question, what had he accomplished to warrant the Academy designating him as its first member and president—or for making the Hetherington Award its highest honor? The answer is complex, but insights can be obtained from the results of an early association with Thomas D. Woods and from the implementation of his philosophy of play by select schools and states. By 1926, many universities had adopted his objectives and curricula for physical education, while his philosophy for physical education began to be promoted by the physical education profession. However, since 2010 the term physical education has been removed from our title and bylaws. Consequently, should we continue to have our highest honor be identified with the Hetherington Award? I sincerely hope so, but the issue should be addressed by our membership.
Athanasios G. Papaioannou
Based on recent trends in positive psychology, on ancient Greek sport literature and particularly on Aristotle’s philosophy, the holistic, harmonious and internal motivational components of excellence and their implications for students’ motivation for physical activity, health and well-being are presented. While modern motivational theories and research have partly addressed the holistic and internal motivational components of excellence, they have yet to address its harmonious part. In this article it is explained why all three components of excellence are required to promote eudaimonic well-being, which is the ultimate aim of Olympism. It is argued also that the conceptualization of hedonic-eudaimonic well-being should be primarily based on the “me” versus “us” meaning. While current physical activity experiences more often reflect a hedonistic perspective, to promote health and well-being for all, an eudaimonic perspective in teaching in physical education and youth sport is needed. This should primarily focus on the promotion of Olympic ideals, such as excellence, friendship, and respect. These three ideals and well-being are all very much interconnected, when all three components of excellence exist in excess. To promote excellence, Olympic ideals, and well-being, the core ideas of an educational philosophy promoting excellence in physical education and youth sport are presented.
Roy J. Shephard
This paper offers a brief response to the article of Bouffard (2001), which in itself was a reaction to two earlier papers published by the present author (Shephard, 1998, 1999). Bouffard makes a vigorous attack on his perceptions of my observations concerning the use of jargon, the primacy of the scientific method, and postmodernism. Unfortunately, his perceptions of my arguments are not always substantiated by a careful reading of the text. Many of the world’s social ills are rashly attributed uniquely to rationalism. No viable alternatives to the scientific method are suggested, and self-criticism of the postmodern approach is less than optimal. Nevertheless, the paper is to be welcomed, both as a challenge to continuing perfection of evidence-based science and as providing an insight into the thinking of those who espouse the postmodernist philosophy.
Robin G. Cash
This article explores a women’s way of coaching and being in sport that existed prior to Title IX. It considers a shift from an organic to a mechanistic coaching approach. An alternative model based on the concept of organicism and underlying principles of relational power, life-affirming actions, and inclusiveness of all beings is presented. This model emerged from three sources: (a) personal experience; (b) dissertation research interviews with former athletes of Eleanor Snell, who coached at Ursinus College from 1931 to 1972; and (c) the literatures of systems theory, systemic thinking, and Chinese philosophy. The life-affirming organic model re-visions sport, where sport is an important site for transformation not only of our individual selves but also of our human cultures.
R. Scott Kretchmar
The 2012 Academy meeting focused on research related to increasing levels of physical activity and promoting persistence. Speakers agreed that answers would be hard to come by but that progress was possible. Emphases for potential solutions ranged from the cellular to the cultural, from neural mechanisms to symbolic processes, from particle physics to philosophy. Strategies for intervention were diverse and refected a series of dynamical tensions—behavioral and nonbehavioral, cognitive and noncognitive, traditional and nontra-ditional, environmental and motivational, and finally medical in contrast to educational. It is likely, given the complexities inherent in increasing movement behaviors and assuring persistence, that various blends of solutions emerging from multiple points on the disciplinary landscape and honoring truths that run across these strategic tensions will be needed.