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Paul G. Montgomery, David B. Pyne and Clare L. Minahan

Purpose:

To characterize the physical and physiological responses during different basketball practice drills and games.

Methods:

Male basketball players (n = 11; 19.1 ± 2.1 y, 1.91 ± 0.09 m, 87.9 ± 15.1 kg; mean ± SD) completed offensive and defensive practice drills, half court 5on5 scrimmage play, and competitive games. Heart rate, VO2 and triaxial accelerometer data (physical demand) were normalized for individual participation time. Data were log-transformed and differences between drills and games standardized for interpretation of magnitudes and reported with the effect size (ES) statistic.

Results:

There was no substantial difference in the physical or physiological variables between offensive and defensive drills; physical load (9.5%; 90% confidence limits ±45); mean heart rate (-2.4%; ±4.2); peak heart rate (-0.9%; ±3.4); and VO2 (–5.7%; ±9.1). Physical load was moderately greater in game play compared with a 5on5 scrimmage (85.2%; ±40.5); with a higher mean heart rate (12.4%; ±5.4). The oxygen demand for live play was substantially larger than 5on5 (30.6%; ±15.6).

Conclusions:

Defensive and offensive drills during basketball practice have similar physiological responses and physical demand. Live play is substantially more demanding than a 5on5 scrimmage in both physical and physiological attributes. Accelerometers and predicted oxygen cost from heart rate monitoring systems are useful for differentiating the practice and competition demands of basketball.

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Lars Donath, Lukas Zahner, Mareike Cordes, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss and Oliver Faude

The study investigated physiological responses during 2-km walking at a certain intensity of a previously performed maximal exercise test where moderate perceived exertion was reported. Twenty seniors were examined by an incremental walking treadmill test to obtain maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). A submaximal 2-km walking test was applied 1 wk later. The corresponding moderate perceived exertion (4 on the CR-10 scale) during the VO2max test was applied to the 2-km treadmill test. Moderate exertion (mean rating of perceived exertion [RPE]: 4 ± 1) led to 76% ± 8% of VO2max and 79% ± 6% of maximal heart rate. RPE values drifted with a significant time effect (p = .001, ηp = .58) during the 2-km test from 3 ± 0.7 to 4.6 ± 0.8. Total energy expenditure (EE) was 3.3 ± 0.5 kcal/kg. No gender differences in ventilatory, heart-rate, or EE data occurred. Brisk walking at moderate RPE of 3–5 would lead to a beneficial physiological response during endurance training and a weekly EE of nearly 1,200 kcal when exercising 5 times/wk for 30 min.

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Maria Kavussanu, Adrian Willoughby and Christopher Ring

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moral identity on physiological responses to affective pictures, namely, the startle blink reflex and pain-related evoked potential. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 46) athletes participating in contact team sports were randomly assigned to either a moral identity group or a non-moral identity group and viewed a series of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant sport-specific pictures. During picture viewing, a noxious electrocutaneous stimulus was delivered as the startle probe and the startle blink and pain-related evoked potential were measured. Upon completion of physiological measures, participants reviewed the pictures and rated them for valence and arousal. ANOVAs revealed that participants in the moral identity group displayed larger startle blinks and smaller pain-related potentials than did those in the non-moral identity group across all picture valence categories. However, the difference in the magnitude of startle blinks between the moral and non-moral identity groups was larger in response to unpleasant than pleasant and neutral pictures. Our findings suggest that moral identity affects physiological responses to sport-specific affective pictures, thereby providing objective evidence for the link between moral identity and emotion in athletes.

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Jennifer N. Ahrens, Lisa K. Lloyd, Sylvia H. Crixell and John L. Walker

People of all ages and fitness levels participate regularly in aerobic-dance bench stepping (ADBS) to increase fitness and control body weight. Any reasonable method for enhancing the experience or effectiveness of ADBS would be beneficial. This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of caffeine on physiological responses during ADBS in women. When compared with a placebo, neither a 3- nor a 6-mg/kg dose of caffeine altered physiological responses or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 20 women (age 19–28 y) of average fitness level, not habituated to caffeine, while they performed an ADBS routine. Since neither dose of caffeine had any effect on VO2, Vco2, minute ventilation, respiratory-exchange ratio, rate of energy expenditure, heart rate, or RPE during ADBS exercise, it would not be prudent for a group exercise leader to recommend caffeine to increase energy cost or decrease perception of effort in an ADBS session. Furthermore, caffeine ingestion should not interfere with monitoring intensity using heart rate or RPE during ADBS.

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John G. Seifert, Greg L. Paul, Dennis E. Eddy and Robert Murray

The effects of preexercise hyperinsulinemia on exercising plasma glucose, plasma insulin, and metabolic responses were assessed during 50 min cycling at 62% VO2max. Subjects were fed a 6% sucrose/glucose solution (LCHO) or a 20% maltodextrin/glucose solution (HCHO) to induce changes in plasma insulin. During exercise, subjects assessed perceived nauseousness and lightheadedness. By the start of exercise, plasma glucose and plasma insulin had increased. In the LCHO trial, plasma glucose values significantly decreased below the baseline value at 30 min of exercise. However, by 40 min, exercise plasma glucose and insulin values were similar to the baseline value. Exercise plasma glucose and insulin did not differ from baseline values in the HCHO trial. Ingestion of LCHO or HCHO was not associated with nausea or lightheadedness. It was concluded that the hyperinsulinemia induced by preexercise feediigs of CHO did not result in frank hypoglycemia or adversely affect sensory or physiological responses during 50 min of moderate-intensity cycling.

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Jerry Mayo, Brian Lyons, Kendal Honea, John Alvarez and Richard Byrum

Context:

Rehabilitation specialists should understand cardiovascular responses to different movement patterns.

Objective:

To investigate physiological responses to forward- (FM), backward- (BM), and lateral-motion (LM) exercise at self-selected intensities.

Design:

Within-subjects design to test independent variable, movement pattern; repeated-measures ANOVA to analyze oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE).

Participants:

10 healthy women.

Results:

VO2 and HR were significantly higher during LM than during FM and BM exercise. The respective VO2 (ml · kg · min–1) and HR (beats/min) values for each condition were FM 25.19 ± 3.6, 142 ± 11; BM 24.24 ± 2.7, 145 ± 12; and LM 30.5 ± 4.6, 160 ± 13. No differences were observed for RER or RPE.

Conclusions:

At self-selected intensities all 3 modes met criteria for maintaining cardiovascular fitness. Practitioners can use these results to develop rehabilitation programs based on clients’ perception and level of discomfort

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Owen Spendiff and Ian G. Campbell

Eight men with spinal cord injury ingested glucose (CHO) or placebo (PLA) 20-min prior to exercise. Participants performed arm crank ergometry for one-hour at 65% V̇O2peak, followed by a 20-min performance test in which athletes were asked to achieve their greatest possible distance. Physiological responses during the one-hour tests were similar between CHO and PLA trials. At the onset of exercise, the CHO trial blood glucose concentrations were higher than PLA (p < .05) but returned to resting values after 20-min exercise. Respiratory exchange ratio responses during the CHO trial were indicative of a higher rate of CHO oxidation (p < .05). A greater distance (km) was covered in the 20-min performance tests after CHO ingestion (p < .05). Results show preingestion of glucose improves endurance performance of wheelchair athletes.

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Roy J. Shephard

Autonomic dysreflexia is a common response to painful stimuli following high level spinal injuries. Loss of normal control of sympathetic reflexes leads to large increases in blood pressure, accompanied by headache and occasional more dangerous sequelae. Although now officially banned, intentional dysreflexia ("boosting") is still exploited by some competitors to gain an unfair advantage. It is thus important to consider physiological mechanisms, consequences for health and performance, and methods of controlling this abuse. Boosters perceive the practice as frequent, performance enhancing, and of low immediate risk. Effective methods of eliminating the practice may include more stringent control of competitors, evaluating and publicizing short-and long-term risks, and countering arguments that boosting is an ethically acceptable method of restoring a normal physiological response.

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Renee Newcomer Appaneal, Frank M. Perna and Kevin T. Larkin

Features of posttraumatic distress have been associated with treatment noncompliance and delayed surgical recovery among general medical and trauma populations. Although cognitive-affective and behavioral features of posttraumatic distress have been demonstrated among adult and adolescent athletes with injuries, physiological responses associated with posttraumatic distress have not yet been examined in this population. The objective of this study was to examine psychophysiological stress reactivity to orthopedic trauma among male athletes who sustained a severe sport injury. Athletes with injuries (n= 7) and non-injured athlete controls (n= 5) completed self-report measures of psychological distress and were then shown injury video footage while heart rate and skin conductance measures were recorded. After exposure to orthopedic trauma-related video footage, athletes with injuries demonstrated significantly greater skin conductance reactivity and subjective distress compared to controls. As demonstrated among other medical and trauma populations, athletes with injuries exhibit exaggerated stress reactivity profiles when primed with orthopedic trauma stimuli.

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Kamuran Yerlikaya Balyan, Serdar Tok, Arkun Tatar, Erdal Binboga and Melih Balyan

The present study examined the association between personality, competitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and physiological arousal in athletes with high and low anxiety levels. Anxiety was manipulated by means of an incentive. Fifty male participants, first, completed the Five Factor Personality Inventory and their resting electro dermal activity (EDA) was recorded. In the second stage, participants were randomly assigned to high or low anxiety groups. Individual EDAs were recorded again to determine precompetition physiological arousal. Participants also completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) and played a computer-simulated soccer match. Results showed that neuroticism was related to both CSAI-2 components and physiological arousal only in the group receiving the incentive. Winners had higher levels of cognitive anxiety and lower levels of physiological arousal than losers. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that an athlete’s neurotic personality may influence his cognitive and physiological responses in a competition.