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Elaine Trudelle-Jackson, Emerenciana Hines, Ann Medley and Mary Thompson

rather than muscle power as an outcome when rehabilitating patients with TKA. 6 With persistent residual deficits in muscle strength and functional performance 6 months or more after TKA, a more intensive approach may be necessary. Muscle strength and power both decrease with age, but muscle power

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Carlo Capelli

The decays of maximal aerobic power (MAP) and of anaerobic capacity were recently estimated in cycling master athletes from 35 to 80 years of age by analyzing their absolute best performances in track competitions. 1 It was suggested that MAP would start declining after 45 years of age, with an

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Dajo Sanders, Mathieu Heijboer, Ibrahim Akubat, Kenneth Meijer and Matthijs K. Hesselink


To assess if short-duration (5 to ~300 s) high-power performance can accurately be predicted using the anaerobic power reserve (APR) model in professional cyclists.


Data from 4 professional cyclists from a World Tour cycling team were used. Using the maximal aerobic power, sprint peak power output, and an exponential constant describing the decrement in power over time, a power-duration relationship was established for each participant. To test the predictive accuracy of the model, several all-out field trials of different durations were performed by each cyclist. The power output achieved during the all-out trials was compared with the predicted power output by the APR model.


The power output predicted by the model showed very large to nearly perfect correlations to the actual power output obtained during the all-out trials for each cyclist (r = .88 ± .21, .92 ± .17, .95 ± .13, and .97 ± .09). Power output during the all-out trials remained within an average of 6.6% (53 W) of the predicted power output by the model.


This preliminary pilot study presents 4 case studies on the applicability of the APR model in professional cyclists using a field-based approach. The decrement in all-out performance during high-intensity exercise seems to conform to a general relationship with a single exponential-decay model describing the decrement in power vs increasing duration. These results are in line with previous studies using the APR model to predict performance during brief all-out trials. Future research should evaluate the APR model with a larger sample size of elite cyclists.

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Sandro Venier, Jozo Grgic and Pavle Mikulic

flexion strength and power, (3) barbell velocity in resistance exercise, and (4) whole-body power output. We hypothesized that caffeine in this form would elicit an ergogenic effect in all explored aspects of exercise performance. Methods Experimental Design This study employed a randomized, cross

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Mário A.M. Simim, Gustavo R. da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Bruno V.C. da Silva, Marco Túlio de Mello and Paul S. Bradley

their physical capacity, it is very difficult to objectively verify fatigue using time-motion analysis alone. Fatigue in AS might also be highly complex, and thus, time-motion characteristics and game-induced decrements in neuromuscular measures (i.e., muscular endurance and power) must also be

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Taylor K. Dinyer, M. Travis Byrd, Ashley N. Vesotsky, Pasquale J. Succi and Haley C. Bergstrom

The critical power (CP) model was originally developed as a 2-parameter linear model to examine the relationship between total work and time to exhaustion ( T lim ) for dynamic, continuous isometric, and intermittent isometric contractions of a muscle or local muscle group (less than one-third the

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M. Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E. Eastman, Brian J. Wallace, Jody L. Clasey and Haley C. Bergstrom

The critical-power (CP) (and critical force) test of Monod and Scherrer involved dynamic, intermittent, static, and continuous muscle actions for isolated movements of synergic muscle groups including the forearm flexors, forearm extensors, and leg flexors. 1 This test involves local muscle work

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Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

power in ambush-marketing ethics. In so doing, the study takes a historical perspective on the IOC’s rights-management efforts and the ethical framing of ambush marketing as part of a broader communication strategy intended to inform consumer opinion. Note that this research builds on and extends Ellis

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Gemma N. Parry, Lee C. Herrington and Ian G. Horsley

Upper-limb muscular power output is a fundamental and highly desirable characteristic across a number of explosive short-duration sports. 1 , 2 Because upper-limb muscle power output is considered to be a principle movement skill and a key aspect of sporting performance and athletic ability, it is

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Brian A. Eiler, Rosemary Al-Kire, Patrick C. Doyle and Heidi A. Wayment

surprising given that sexual violence is often committed by individuals in positions of power and authority across a wide variety of contexts (e.g.,  Brackenridge, 2001 ; Watts & Zimmerman, 2002 ). Unfortunately, literature on athletes’ psychosocial experiences and reactions to abuse (e