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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai

dehydration are the most commonly reported practices ( Artioli et al., 2010b ; Berkovich et al., 2016 ; Kordi et al., 2011 ). Despite the potential to allow an athlete to compete against lighter components, it should be noted that using these extreme methods can negatively impact physical performance

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Robin D. Taylor, Howie J. Carson and Dave Collins

( Lytton, 1980 ). As such, this suggests that twin relationships can serve a nurturing function uncommon among nontwins ( Ainslie, 1997 ; Tancredy & Fraley, 2006 ), which suggests the need to consider this specific sibling type alongside age-gapped siblings within coaching practice. Occurring

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies and Kevin Enright

practices experienced by the natural FP athlete, and (c) to address future research directions. Literature Search A literature search was conducted using databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus (via EBSCO) up to 10 September 2018. Despite slight variation in the terminology used

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Kathryn LaMasfer, Gary Kinchin, Kimerly Gall and Daryl Siedentop

Full inclusion refers to educational practices where all students with disabilities are educated in regular classes along with nondisabled peers. Six elementary physical education specialists (5 females, 1 male) were studied to obtain their views of inclusion practices and perceived outcomes. Teacher interviews and observations revealed four main themes: (a) multiple teaching styles, (b) student outcomes, (c) teacher frustrations, and (d) differences in inclusion practices. Results indicated that schools provided little support, and teachers reported that they were inadequately prepared to teach effectively with inclusive classes. These teachers had strong feelings of guilt and inadequacy as they continued to try to be effective for all children.

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Stephen R. Bested, Gerome A. Manson and Luc Tremblay

colleagues ( 2014 ) demonstrated that robotic guidance was effective at inducing acute performance changes to the trajectory and smoothness of a simple aiming task. Importantly, a variable practice schedule (e.g., having participants aim to multiple targets) was employed. Variability of practice involves

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Chan Woong Park and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

American physical education teachers, any unique or different perspectives and practices they model and espouse due to their different and diverse cultural backgrounds and experiences are likely to have a significant impact on the profession in the United States. As far as we are aware, however, no

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Sarah Zipp, Tavis Smith and Simon Darnell

brought menstruation to the forefront of gender in international development research and practice ( Bobel, 2018 ). We expand on this example later in this article, along with other examples of how adaptive preferences help illustrate often overlooked aspects of gendered socialization into sport. We

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Israel Halperin

research and practice. In this commentary, I will expand on their recommendations by proposing that exercise scientists should more frequently utilize a specific qualitative research design: case studies. In exercise science, case study designs are mostly used to acquire knowledge about the training

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Laurel Richardson

New writing practices in qualitative research include evocative writing—a research practice through which we can investigate how we construct the world, ourselves, and others, and how standard objectifying practices of social science unnecessarily limit us and social science. Evocative representations do not take writing for granted but offer multiple ways of thinking about a topic, reaching diverse audiences, and nurturing the writer. They also offer an opportunity for rethinking criteria used to judge research and reconsidering institutional practices and their effects on community. Language is a constitutive force, creating a particular view of reality and the Self. No textual staging is ever innocent (including this one). Styles of writing are neither fixed nor neutral but reflect the historically shifting domination of particular schools or paradigms. Social scientific writing, like all other forms of writing, is a sociohistorical construction, and, therefore, mutable.

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Jeffrey S. Hird, Daniel M. Landers, Jerry R. Thomas and John J. Horan

This study compared varying ratios of physical to mental practice on cognitive (pegboard) and motor (pursuit rotor) task performance. Subjects (36 males and 36 females) were randomly assigned to one of six conditions experiencing different amounts of combined mental and physical practice. Seven practice sessions (four trials per session for the pegboard and eight trials per session for the pursuit rotor) were employed. ANOVA results showed that all treatment conditions, except the pegboard control group, showed significant differential pre- to posttest improvement. Furthermore, effect sizes and significant linear trends of posttest scores from both tasks showed that as the relative proportion of physical practice increased, performance was enhanced. In support of previous meta-analytic research, for all treatment groups, the effect sizes for the cognitive task were larger than for the motor task. These findings are consistent with the symbolic-learning theory explanation for mental-practice effects. In addition, the results indicate that replacing physical practice with any mental practice would be counterproductive.