The purpose of the study focused on how textbook authors in secondary school physical education used multicultural education concepts, using Banks’ (2006a) dimensions and Sleeter and Grant’s (1999) approaches. Data collection methods included examination of textbooks’ chapters, indexes, and references in five textbooks. Constant comparison method was used in data analysis. The findings of the study follow: 1) Most textbook authors treated multicultural education as an additive concept in the curriculum section and emphasized issues of gender and disability, 2) all of the textbook authors adopted either Banks’ or Sleeter and Grant’s multicultural education approaches, (3) Harrison, Blakemore, and Buck addressed issues of gender, disability and ethnicity in content objectives, and 4) Metzler addressed issues of gender and disability with Banks’ content integration and equity-based pedagogy concepts. An implication concerns incorporation of multicultural education concepts in curriculum and pedagogy in preparation of preservice teachers in secondary school physical education.
Shan-Hui (Tiffany) Hsu and Rose Chepyator-Thomson
Nate McCaughtry and Inez Rovegno
This study used developmental theory to examine changes in four preservice physical education teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge during a 20- lesson middle school volleyball unit. Participant observation methodology was used including interviews, field observations, and document analysis. Data were analyzed using constant comparison. Three main shifts in their knowledge were identified. First, the teachers moved from poorly predicting students’ skillfulness and blaming students when those predictions caused problems, to valuing the matching of tasks to students’ skill levels. Second, they understood motor development differently as their inability to recognize skill development caused problems in helping students learn, and they were then mentored by experienced teachers to better see and facilitate learning. Third, the preservice teachers grew to respect and emphasize student emotion in teaching, realizing that overlooking emotion led to problems in teaching. The discussion focuses on common pitfalls in teacher development and the need for attention to emotion in the research on teacher knowledge.
Emily M. Jones, Jun-hyung Baek and James D. Wyant
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing preservice teachers’ (PST) experiences integrating technology within a guided action-based research project in the context of student teaching.
Participants were enrolled at a rural, mid-Atlantic university (N = 80, 53 male; 27 female). Researchers retrieved archived data from five semesters of physical education (PE) student teaching cohorts. Data sources included: Technology Action Research Project poster presentations (n = 75) and reflective journal entries (n = 234). All identifiable information was removed, and qualitative data were analyzed inductively.
Three themes and subthemes emerged Student Clientele, Self as Teacher, and Others as Systems of Support as contributing agents in PSTs’ experiences integrating technology.
Results of this study support technology-rich field-based experiences for PSTs that are guided by an action research framework. Findings enhance our understanding of factors that facilitate and hinder early career PE teachers use of technology in teaching and learning settings.
Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Much research on physical education preservice teachers’ (PTs) perceptions of effective teaching during early field experiences (EFEs) or student teaching has indicated a concern for keeping pupils well-behaved, busy, and happy (e.g., Placek, 1983). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an EFE, combined with a methods course developed from the knowledge base on effective teaching, on PT conceptions of the teaching-learning process. Data were collected using the critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1954) and a reflective questionnaire (O’Sullivan & Tsangaridou, 1992). PT responses were analyzed by employing Goetz and LeCompte’s (1984) analytic induction method. PTs were concerned with pupil learning or elements of teaching related to pupil learning, focused primarily on teaching technique, and believed that knowledge of sports and games was a vital component of teacher effectiveness, frequently mentioning that they were lacking in this area.
Jaimie McMullen, Hans van der Mars and Julie A. Jahn
The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) majors enrolled in an internship course that provided them with authentic experiences promoting and facilitating a before-school physical activity (PA) program and to examine the associated implications for PETE programs within the Comprehensive School Physical Activity (CSPAP) framework. In this study, five PETE majors were recruited to participate. Data were collected from several sources including participant observation, interviews, systematic observation, and document analysis. The results show that preservice physical educators struggled with PA promotion as a consequence of perceptions of early programmatic success, feelings of nervousness and influences of their existing beliefs about the role of the physical educator. Therefore, when considering the role of the physical educator relative to a CSPAP, PETE programs should consider making adjustments to their curricula to include experiences that allow preservice teachers to practice skills associated with out-of-class PA promotion.
Stefan Ward, Heidi Henschel Pellett and Mark I. Perez
The purpose of this study was to explore preservice teachers’ experiences of cognitive disequilibrium (CD) theory during a service-learning project in a study abroad experience.
A case study with 8 participants was used. Data sources consisted of: Formal interviews, videos of planning, videos of teaching, videos of reflection sessions, and informal interviews. Data were analyzed utilizing open and axial coding (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Trustworthiness strategies included: prolonged engagement, multiple data source triangulation, and member checks.
Results indicated four themes: “We made it our own thing”, “Summer camp for teachers”, “Struggle and disequilibrium”, and “By the end it was a transformation”.
CD was ultimately positive for these students. The positive resolution of CD catalyzed a transformative effect on their perceptions of their teaching. This was supported by positive peer interaction.
Elizabeth Domangue and Russell Lee Carson
Following the devastation of hurricane Katrina, a university located in the south-eastern United States created a service-learning program. This program was established so that physical education teacher education (PETE) students could provide physical activities to children living in a temporary, government-funded housing community. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the service-learning program shaped preservice teachers’ cultural competency. The participants were 16 PETE students in a curriculum development course. A questionnaire was used to assess changes in the students’ cultural competency. Reflective journals and interviews were qualitative data sources used to identify significant elements of the service-learning program that elicited thoughts about the role of cultural competency in teaching. Findings revealed that there were changes in cultural competency. Triangulation of the data suggested that the service-learning participants identified consistent engagement, exposure to another culture, and an engaged instructor as key contributors to cultural competency within the service-learning program.
The emancipatory goal that underpins critical theories of teaching and learning is built on a theory of rational self-determination. In the context of physical education, critical educators believe that through a process of enlightenment teachers can recognize and transform elements of injustice and inequality that exist, albeit unwittingly, in their practice. However, despite the broad appeal of this orientation there are relatively few empirical accounts of how theories of enlightenment manifest themselves in the practice of emancipation. Propelled by the lacuna that clearly exists between critical theory and critical practice, this paper reports on the introduction of critical social discourses to a preservice PE program. It uses a case study methodology to report on two student-teachers’ engagement with a range of critical social discourses during a year-long PE unit. The paper discusses some of the ways these students engaged with the theory and practice of a critical orientation for teaching and learning in physical education. Aspects of their experiences are then interpreted through Fay’s (1987) critical but postmodern “limits to change” thesis. The paper concludes with tempered optimism about the potential for critical social discourses to guide preservice teachers in practical ways.
Kate R. Barrett, Ann Sebren and Anne M. Sheehan
Teaching preservice teachers to plan, specifically the written lesson plan, is one vehicle to help transform their content knowledge into forms that are pedagogically powerful (Shulman, 1987). This article describes what changes occurred in how one teacher, BJ, transformed her knowledge of content for student learning in lesson plans written during her methods course, student teaching, and 1st-year teaching. Data sources beyond the 17 lesson plans selected for analysis were unit plans, dialogue journals, semistructured interviews, and a graduate research project. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis techniques, and emerging results were discussed continuously with BJ for participant validation of the researchers’ interpretation. Four patterns related to content development are discussed: a shift in how content was identified, shorter lesson plans, a shift from consistent use of extending tasks with minimum use of application tasks to the reverse, and the absence of preplanned refinement and simplifying tasks. Findings from both studies, BJ’s and the original inquiry, suggest that teacher educators need to reexamine the amount and type of information they ask students to include, as well as the format. The challenge will be to develop new approaches that will continually support this process but that will be better suited to the realities of teaching (Floden & Klinzing, 1990).
Rick Bell, Kate R. Barrett and Pamela C. Allison
The ability of physical education teachers to observe the movement response of the learner and the environment in which the response takes place is crucial in effective instruction. This study is an initial attempt to identify what a group of 21 preservice physical education teachers reported seeing in a 15-minute games lesson with fourth-grade students. An analytic inductive strategy was employed to categorize the data at two levels of specificity. Results indicated that as a group the preservice teachers focused on a broad range of teacher and student behaviors and lesson elements, but as individuals they had a more limited focus of attention. Level 2 analysis revealed that only 10% of the recorded statements focused on the movement responses of the children and no statements related to the learning environment. If teacher educators deem it important that their majors notice teacher and student behaviors as well as lesson elements, they have to plan more carefully for this to occur, particularly with majors early in their professional education.