values, objectives for coaching, and coaching philosophy. This type of coaching knowledge also emphasizes coaches’ capacity for engaging in continuing professional development throughout their careers and propensity for systematic and ongoing self-reflection. In order to continue their own development
Eric M. Martin, Scott J. Moorcroft and Tyler G. Johnson
Nell Faucette, Peg Nugent, James F. Sallis and Thomas L. McKenzie
Classroom teachers’ responses to a 2-year professional development program are presented. Sixteen 4th- and 5th-grade teachers involved in Project SPARK completed structured interviews, questionnaires, and written evaluations of program sessions. Although in Year 1 more than half of the teachers expressed concerns about schedules and equipment management, results indicated that the program helped increase their self-confidence when teaching physical education. Participants believed that students benefitted from their enhanced knowledge and instructional behaviors. Program components most appreciated included: the input received and responsiveness of the design team; opportunities to collaborate, discuss concerns, and problem-solve with each other and the facilitators; and having on-site and large-group-session modeling. Results indicated that the teachers were less enthusiastic about a self-management curriculum due to its behavioral emphasis, yet supported the assertion that an ongoing, supportive professional development program can substantially improve classroom teachers’ physical education programs.
Niki Tsangaridou and Mary O’Sullivan
This study was motivated by the need to understand the role and function of teachers’ reflection as it “is” rather than as it “ought” to be. The focus of the study was to describe teachers’ reflection within the teaching and learning environment, as well as the role of reflection in their professional development. Participants were four experienced elementary and secondary physical education teachers from urban and suburban school districts. Data were collected through observations, interviews, and journals. Case analysis and crosscase analysis were employed in analyzing the data. Findings indicated that the participants’ microreflection, the type of reflection that informs teachers’ day-to-day practices, addressed pedagogical, content, ethical, moral, and social issues. Their reflections were situationally driven and contextually bound. Macroreflection, the type of reflection that informs teachers’ practices over time, influenced changes in the teachers’ classroom practice and professional development.
Nate McCaughtry, Kimberly L. Oliver, Suzanna Rocco Dillon and Jeffrey J. Martin
We used cognitive developmental theory to examine teachers’ perspectives on the use of pedometers in physical education. Twenty-six elementary physical education teachers participating in long-term professional development were observed and interviewed twice over 6 months as they learned to incorporate pedometers into their teaching. Data were analyzed via constant comparison. The teachers reported four significant shifts in their thinking and values regarding pedometers. First, at the beginning, the teachers predicted they would encounter few implementation challenges that they would not be able to overcome, but, after prolonged use, they voiced several limitations to implementing pedometers in physical education. Second, they anticipated that pedometers would motivate primarily higher skilled students, but found that lesser skilled students connected with them more. Third, they moved from thinking they could use pedometers to teach almost any content to explaining four areas of content that pedometers are best suited to assist in teaching. Last, they shifted from seeing pedometers as potential accountability tools for student learning and their teaching to identifying key limitations to using pedometers for assessment. Our discussion centers on connecting these findings to teacher learning and professional development, and on the implications for teacher educators and professional development specialists advocating pedometers in physical education.
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Wade Gilbert, Ronald Gallimore and Pierre Trudel
Repeated calls have been made by prominent sport and education associations for the creation of ongoing professional development networks and learning communities for youth sport coaches. The purpose of this paper is to propose a learning community approach to coach development that complements large-scale coach education programs. This concept paper is organized into three sections followed by a brief summary. The three sections are: (a) overview of the effectiveness of community-based learning research on teacher development, (b) overview of how community-based learning literature has informed coach development initiatives, and (c) suggestions for how a learning community approach could be practically implemented in a typical youth sport setting.
The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze mentoring and networking among selected male and female administrators employed by National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. A random sample of 263 NCAA administrators (106 males, 157 females) participated in the study. Data were collected through a mail questionnaire and a follow-up interview, both developed by the researcher. Results indicate that NCAA administrators have mentoring relationships and participate actively in networking. The mentoring relationships and the networking utilized by these administrators included both formal and informal involvement. The results indicate that NCAA administrators perceive that having a mentor and actively networking assists in an individual’s personal and professional development.
Eric A. Zillmer and Rebecca Weidensaul Gigli
Over the last two decades, there has been an increase in participation in intercollegiate sports with over 380,000 student-athletes participating in nearly 100 athletic conferences at 1,100 NCAA membership schools. Simultaneously, the professional development in the field of sport psychology has paralleled the public draw of competitive sports. This paper explores, from the university athletics departmental perspective, the opportunities as well as the challenges that clinical sport psychologists may encounter within this interesting and stimulating field. The sport psychologist’s training and expertise uniquely prepares him or her to play an important and rewarding role in the lives of coaches, student-athletes and all those who support them.
Jaime R. DeLuca and Jessica Braunstein-Minkove
Experiential learning has become a driving force of universities around the world, and is a crucial part of many sport management programs. This is particularly true given the competitive nature of the field and the rapid changes the industry continuously faces. This work seeks to reexamine the sport management curricula to ensure a progression and evolution toward a superior level of student preparedness for their internship experiences. Through the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods, our major findings recommend a focus on academic, experiential, and professional development. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed along with limitations and directions for further investigation.
Richard I. Tinning
Student teaching as a significant part of the professional development of physical education teachers is implicated in the general failure of teacher education to adequately prepare teachers who can envision a world of schooling that is any different from the present one. This paper argues that the dominant pedagogy of student teaching is inherently conservative, is characterized by technical rationality, and embraces an outmoded view of professional knowledge. The adoption of a critical-inquiry perspective in student teaching is offered as a possible alternative.