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Johan Pelssers, Christophe Delecluse, Joke Opdenacker, Eva Kennis, Evelien Van Roie and Filip Boen

This study evaluated “Every Step Counts!”—a 10-wk, structured walking intervention in a community-based senior organization—on promoting physical activity participation, fitness, and well-being among older adults (age ≥ 55 yr). The intervention prescribed pedometer-defined walks in weekly walking schedules. These were fitness-tailored and structured in walking load (intensity/volume) according to the principles of training progression. This intervention was offered as a social activity at meeting points of a community-based senior organization. Twenty-nine meeting points (n = 432) constituted the intervention condition. Ten meeting points (n = 148) formed the wait-list control condition. Measurements were organized at intervention start (pretest) and end (posttest). Intention-to-treat linear mixed models showed small positive intervention effects on physical activity, fitness, and aspects of well-being. These results confirm the effectiveness of structured walking interventions with systematic training progression and underscore the value of community-based senior organizations as intervention settings for older adults.

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Tracy L. Pellett and Joyce M. Harrison

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of refinement tasks on female seventh- and eighth-grade students’ (N = 200) daily practice success (average daily correct and total trials, and daily correct/total [C/T] ratios) and overall achievement (students’ pretest to posttest improvement) for an introductory 11-day volleyball unit. Six intact classes were randomly assigned to three groups: (a) control, (b) group receiving refinement tasks during skills progressions (extension, refinement, and application [E/R/A] group), (c) group receiving no refinement tasks during skills progressions (extension and application [E/A] group). From the analysis of the data, it was concluded that refinement tasks did have a significant positive effect on students’ daily practice success (daily C/T ratio) and overall achievement.

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Wayne J. Albert and Doris I. Miller

Takeoff kinematics of axel jumps were determined from a spatial analysis of singles and doubles performed by 16 figure skaters. The takeoff was divided into glide, transition, and pivot phases. During the glide, horizontal speed remained constant, vertical velocity was slightly negative, and over half the angular momentum for flight was generated. In the transition, skaters gained considerable vertical velocity from tangential motion by rotating about the long axis of the blade, Initially this reduced the angle of the support leg with respect to the vertical while the blade ran in the direction of progression. Most skaters continued to gain vertical velocity by angling the blade to the direction of progression (skidding) and rotating up and forward, still about the blade's long axis. There was little angular momentum gain, and forward speed decreased significantly. In the pivot, skaters rocked forward onto the toe picks losing horizontal speed, vertical velocity, and angular momentum.

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Emmanuel Jacobs, Nathalie Roussel, Ine Van Caekenberghe, Edith Cassiers, Luc Van den Dries, Jonas Rutgeerts, Jan Gielen and Ann Hallemans

This cross-sectional study aimed at developing a biomechanical method to objectify voluntary and unpredictable movements, using an automated three-dimensional motion capture system and surface electromyography. Fourteen experienced theater performers were tested while executing the old man exercise, wherein they have to walk like an old man, building up a sustained high intensive muscular activity and tremor. Less experienced performed showed a different kinematics of movement, a slower speed of progression and more variable EMG signals at higher intensity. Female performers also differed from males in movement kinematics and muscular activity. The number of the trial only influenced the speed of progression. The performers showed results which could be well placed within the stages of learning and the degrees of freedom problem.

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Sam T. Johnson, Grace M. Golden, John A. Mercer, Brent C. Mangus and Mark A. Hoffman

Context:

Form skipping has been used to help injured athletes progress to running. Because little research has been done on form-skipping mechanics, its justification as a progression to running exercises is unclear.

Objective:

To compare ground-reaction forces (GRF) during form skipping and running in healthy subjects at clinically relevant speeds, 1.75 m/s and 3.83 m/s, respectively.

Design:

Dependent t tests (α = .05).

Setting:

Sports-injury research center.

Participants:

9 male college athletes (age 20 ± 1.33 years, mass 848.4 ± 43.24 N, height 1.80 ± 0.07 m).

Main Outcome Measures:

Average (Fz avg) and maximum (Fz max) vertical GRF and (Fy) braking impulse were compared.

Results:

Fz avg and Fz max were greater during running than during form skipping (P < .05). Braking impulses were not different (P > .05).

Conclusions:

It appears that Fz, but not the Fy, GRF might explain why form skipping might be an appropriate progression to running.

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Sue Hillman

The kinetic chain is open in the upper extremity skills used in most sports. Although closed chain exercises will increase stability, open chain strengthening is more sport specific. This article addresses general concepts of upper extremity rehabilitation, including exercises to restore normal range of motion, joint mechanics, and muscle strength. The roles of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, plyometric training, and elastic band exercises are also discussed. Finally, a progression of specificity training is presented to return the athlete to successful sport performance.

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Tamara C. Valovich McLeod, Megan N. Houston and Cailee E. Welch

Concussions resulting from sports and recreational activities are a significant concern in the pediatric population. The number of children and adolescents sustaining sport-related concussions is increasing and, as a result, legislation has been passed in all 50 states to ensure appropriate recognition and referral of pediatric athletes following concussion. The developing brain may make the diagnosis, assessment, and management of concussion more challenging for health care providers and requires the use of specific age-appropriate assessment tools. Concussion management must also include considerations for cognitive and physical rest, a collaborative concussion management team that includes medical and school personnel, and more conservative stepwise progressions for returning to school and to physical activity.

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Frank Cerny

In 1989 we knew that exercise, including regular prescribed physical activity, could be safely performed and described some of the physiological responses to exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Also in 1989, the genetic defect causing cystic fibrosis (CF) was identified leading to improvements in treatment that greatly extended the life span for these patients. Increased understanding of the factors limiting exercise capacity and of the important role of regular exercise in slowing the progression of CF and in modulating some of the effects of the genetic defect on airway function has led to the consensus that regular exercise should be part of the standard of care for this disease.

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Kristinn I. Heinrichs and Catherine R. Haney

The efficacy of the nonoperative and operative approaches to Achilles tendon rapture has been debated in the literature. In addition, there is little consensus regarding postoperative immobilization with regard to immobilization type, casting position, cast time, and weight-bearing progression. The rehabilitation of the surgically repaired Achilles tendon has not been well described in the literature. The epidemiology and biomechanics of Achilles tendon rupture as well as splint fabrication and rehabilitation protocol for the surgically repaired Achilles tendon in two patients will be presented.

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Gail M. Ronchetti, Christopher A. Welch, Brent I. Smith and Danielle E. Blair

A 19-year-old female basketball athlete sustained a right shoulder injury during collegiate competition resulting from a collision causing severe pain and discomfort. The patient was diagnosed with a unique type IV acromioclavicular (AC) separation. Surgical stabilization of the AC joint and slow progression in rehabilitation with immobilization assisted in protecting the reconstruction. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate intervention helped to lead to the successful recovery and return to play for this patient. There are few cases of type IV acromioclavicular separation reported in the literature and none related to basketball. This case presents the challenges related to the diagnosis and rehabilitation following surgical reconstruction of a type IV acromioclavicular separation.