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Gemma V. Espí-López, Pilar Serra-Añó, David Cobo-Pascual, Manuel Zarzoso, Luis Suso-Martí, Ferran Cuenca-Martínez and Marta Inglés

Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males: randomized controlled trial . Braz J Phys Ther . 2016 ; 20 ( 3 ): 213 – 222 . doi: 10.1590/bjpt-rbf.2014.0151 27437712 16. Mak DN , Au IP , Chan M , et al . Placebo effect of facilitatory Kinesio

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

synthesis rates in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial . Journal of Nutrition, 147 ( 12 ), 2252 – 2261 . PubMed ID: 28855419 doi:10.3945/jn.117.254532 10.3945/jn.117.254532 Levenhagen , D.K. , Carr , C. , Carlson , M.G. , Maron , D.J. , Borel , M.J. , & Flakoll , P.J. ( 2002

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos

in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial . Arch Gerontol Geriatr . 2014 ; 58 ( 1 ): 160 – 169 . PubMed ID: 24012131 doi:10.1016/j.archger.2013.08.007 10.1016/j.archger.2013.08.007 24012131 40. Grandes G , Sanchez

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Alison Crosbie

Objective

Asthma is a leading cause of chronic illness in children, impacting heavily on their daily life and participation in physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the evidence for the use of physical therapy to improve pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in children with asthma. Furthermore, the review aims to update previous literature on the effect of exercise on health related quality of life.

Methods

A search was conducted for randomized control trials (RCTs) using the electronic databases Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, AMED, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were included if the participants were asthmatic children aged 6–18 years participating in any mode of physical exercise. Studies were reviewed for study quality, participant details, exercise intervention details, and intervention outcomes.

Results

A total of 16 studies and 516 subjects met inclusion criteria for review. Severity of asthma ranged from mild to severe. No improvement in pulmonary function was observed. Physical training led to an increase in aerobic capacity as measured by VO2max (mL/kg/min).

Conclusions

Findings suggest that physical training does not improve pulmonary function in children with asthma, but does increase aerobic capacity. The small number of studies investigating quality of life suggests that physical training does improve health related quality of life; however further well designed randomized control trials are needed to verify these findings.

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Franciele Cascaes da Silva, Rodrigo da Rosa Iop, Patrícia Domingos dos Santos, Lídia Mara Aguiar Bezerra de Melo, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres Filho and Rudney da Silva

This study aimed to determine the effects of physical-exercise-based rehabilitation programs on quality of life of patients with Parkinson’s disease through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. For this purpose the following electronic databases were selected: Medline by PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PEDro. The search strategy included the proposed descriptors in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), associated with a sensitive list of terms to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), without year and language restrictions. Fourteen studies were potentially relevant, and these studies were included. Physical-exercise-based rehabilitation programs realized 2–4 times a week, 60 min each session, for 6–12 weeks, and follow-up of 3 months promotes significant positive effects on quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients at mild to moderate stages and disease duration around 6 years.

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Katja Linde and Dorothee Alfermann

Background:

Physical and cognitive activity seems to be an effective strategy by which to promote age-sensitive fluid cognitive abilities in older adults.

Method:

In this randomized controlled trial, 70 healthy senior citizens (age 60–75) were allocated to a physical, cognitive, combined physical plus cognitive, and waiting control group. The trial assessed information processing speed, short-term memory, spatial relations, concentration, reasoning, and cognitive speed.

Results:

In contrast to the control group, the physical, cognitive, and combined training groups enhanced their concentration immediately after intervention. Only the physical training group showed improved concentration 3 months later. The combined training group displayed improved cognitive speed both immediately and three months after intervention. The cognitive training group displayed improved cognitive speed 3 months after intervention.

Conclusions:

Physical, cognitive, and combined physical plus cognitive activity can be seen as cognition-enrichment behaviors in healthy older adults that show different rather than equal intervention effects.

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Adam B. Lloyd, David R. Lubans, Ronald C. Plotnikoff and Philip J. Morgan

Background:

This study examined potential parenting-related mediators of children’s physical activity and dietary behavior change in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids (HDHK) community program.

Methods:

A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 45 overweight/obese (mean [SD] age = 39.8 [5.4] years; BMI = 32.4 [3.8]) fathers and their children (n = 77; 58% boys; mean [SD] age = 7.7 [2.5] years). Families were randomized to either the HDHK program or wait-list control group. The program involved 7 sessions. Fathers and their children were assessed at baseline and at 14 weeks for physical activity (pedometery) and core food intake (Questionnaire). Fathers’ lifestyle-related parenting practices included; self-efficacy, beliefs, modeling, logistic support, rules, cophysical activity, shared mealtime frequency and intentions.

Results:

Significant intervention effects were found for cophysical activity and modeling physical activity. Cophysical activity mediated children’s physical activity in the intervention (‘mediated effect,’ AB = 653, 95% CI = 4–2050) and was responsible for 59.5% of the intervention effect. Fathers’ beliefs mediated children’s percent energy from core foods (AB = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.05–5.55) and accounted for 72.9% of the intervention effect.

Conclusions:

Participation in the HDHK program positively impacted on fathers’ cophysical activity with their child and beliefs about healthy eating which mediated changes in children’s diet and physical activity behaviors.

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Cadeyrn J. Gaskin, Melinda Craike, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Kerry S. Courneya and Patricia M. Livingston

Background:

The ENGAGE (efficacy of a referral and physical activity program for survivors of prostate cancer) study established that a clinician referral and 12-week exercise training program increased vigorous physical activity at 12 weeks among men with prostate cancer. Here, we report the 6- and 12-month outcomes.

Methods:

In this multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial, we compared a clinician referral and exercise training program to usual care. Discounted gym membership was offered to men in the intervention condition on completion of the 12-week exercise program. Self-reported physical activity at 6 and 12 months was the primary outcome. Quality of life, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were secondary outcomes.

Results:

A total of 147 men meeting eligibility criteria agreed to participate (54 intervention, 93 control). A positive interaction effect for vigorous physical activity was observed at 6 months, but not 12 months. No significant effects for the secondary outcomes were found.

Conclusions:

A clinician referral and community-based supervised and unsupervised exercise training program, along with discounted gym membership, had a positive short-term effect on vigorous physical activity levels, but did not improve quality of life, in men with prostate cancer.

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Antonio García-Hermoso, Mairena Sánchez-López and Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno

The purpose of this meta-analysis of randomized trials was to determine the effectiveness of aerobic plus resistance exercise interventions on body composition related to variables in overweight and obese youth. A computerized search was made of 7 databases. The analysis was restricted to randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of aerobic and resistance exercise on body composition (body weight, body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, and waist circumference) in obese youth. Two independent reviewers screened studies and extracted data. Weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Nine studies were selected for meta-analysis as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria (n = 365). Aerobic plus resistance exercise interventions (8–24 weeks duration) produced a decrease in body weight (WMD=-3.31 kg), body mass index (WMD=-1.05 kg/m2), and fat mass (WMD=-1.93% and 5.05 kg), but changes in fatfree mass and waist circumference were not observed. These changes were accentuated through programs of at least 60 min of exercise per session, generating greater reductions in body weight (WMD=-4.11 kg), fat mass (WMD=-4.07%), and increase in fat-free mass (WMD = 2.45 kg). This meta-analysis provides insight into the effectiveness of short-term aerobic plus resistance exercise interventions for decreasing body weight, body mass index, and fat mass in pediatric obesity.

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Hadas Gabizon, Yan Press, Ilia Volkov and Itshak Melzer

Objectives:

To evaluate the effect of a group-based Pilates training program on balance control and health status in healthy older adults.

Design:

A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

Setting:

General community.

Participants:

A total of 88 community-dwelling older adults (age 71.15 ± 4.30 years), without evidence of functional balance impairment, were recruited and allocated at random to a Pilates intervention group (n = 44) or a control group (n = 44).

Intervention:

The Pilates intervention group received 36 training sessions over three months (3 sessions a week), while the control group did not receive any intervention.

Outcome measures:

Standing upright postural stability, performance-based measures of balance, and self-reported health status was assessed in both groups at baseline and at the end of the intervention period.

Results:

Compared with the control group, the Pilates intervention did not improve postural stability, baseline functional measures of balance, or health status.

Conclusions:

The results suggest that because Pilates training is not task specific, it does not improve balance control or balance function in independent older adults.