Although the positive effects of different kinds of physical activity (PA) on cognitive functioning have already been demonstrated in a variety of studies, the role of cognitive engagement in promoting children’s executive functions is still unclear. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the effects of two qualitatively different chronic PA interventions on executive functions in primary school children. Children (N = 181) aged between 10 and 12 years were assigned to either a 6-week physical education program with a high level of physical exertion and high cognitive engagement (team games), a physical education program with high physical exertion but low cognitive engagement (aerobic exercise), or to a physical education program with both low physical exertion and low cognitive engagement (control condition). Executive functions (updating, inhibition, shifting) and aerobic fitness (multistage 20-m shuttle run test) were measured before and after the respective condition. Results revealed that both interventions (team games and aerobic exercise) have a positive impact on children’s aerobic fitness (4–5% increase in estimated VO2max). Importantly, an improvement in shifting performance was found only in the team games and not in the aerobic exercise or control condition. Thus, the inclusion of cognitive engagement in PA seems to be the most promising type of chronic intervention to enhance executive functions in children, providing further evidence for the importance of the qualitative aspects of PA.
Mirko Schmidt, Katja Jäger, Fabienne Egger, Claudia M. Roebers and Achim Conzelmann
Nicholas Riley, David R. Lubans, Kathryn Holmes and Philip J Morgan
To evaluate the impact of a primary school-based physical activity (PA) integration program delivered by teachers on objectively measured PA and key educational outcomes.
Ten classes from 8 Australian public schools were randomly allocated to treatment conditions. Teachers from the intervention group were taught to embed movement-based learning in their students’ (n = 142) daily mathematics program in 3 lessons per week for 6 weeks. The control group (n = 98) continued its regular mathematics program. The primary outcome was accelerometer-determined PA across the school day. Linear mixed models were used to analyze treatment effects.
Significant intervention effects were found for PA across the school day (adjusted mean difference 103 counts per minute [CPM], 95% confidence interval [CI], 36.5–169.7, P = .008). Intervention effects were also found for PA (168 CPM, 95% CI, 90.1–247.4, P = .008) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (2.6%, 95% CI, 0.9–4.4, P = .009) in mathematics lessons, sedentary time across the school day (–3.5%, 95% CI, –7.0 to –0.13, P = .044) and during mathematics (–8.2%, CI, –13.0 to –2.0, P = .010) and on-task behavior (13.8%, 95% CI, 4.0–23.6, P = .011)—but not for mathematics performance or attitude.
Integrating movement across the primary mathematics syllabus is feasible and efficacious.
Ya-Chen Liu, Wen-Wen Yang, I-Yao Fang, Hope Li-Ling Pan, Wei-Han Chen and Chiang Liu
Outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) is installed in parks to promote health, particularly among seniors. However, no quantitative study has investigated its effectiveness. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effectiveness of 12 weeks of OFE training on functional fitness in seniors. Forty-two active seniors were recruited and randomly assigned into OFE and control groups. The OFE group underwent 12 weeks of training using popular OFE for cardiorespiratory function, flexibility, and strength, whereas participants in the control group were asked to maintain their previous lifestyles. The senior fitness test was assessed before and after the 12-week period. Unexpectedly, the results showed no significant improvement within or between the groups after the 12-week training in all parameters (p > .05). In conclusion, the 12-week OFE training failed to enhance functional fitness among active seniors. Potential reasons for the limited training effects might be lack of resistance components and diversity of the OFE design and installation.
Brian M. Moore, Joseph T. Adams, Sallie Willcox and Joseph Nicholson
active treatment approaches in improving reactive postural responses in community-dwelling older adults. By conducting a comprehensive search for randomized controlled trials that have investigated reactive postural responses as a primary outcome following completion of an active training program, this
Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Antonio J. Molina, Vicente Martin, Tania Fernández-Villa, Jose M. Cancela and Carlos Ayan
can be adapted both to the population and the specific requirements of the person. For this purpose, the design of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is considered the gold standard for judging the benefits of treatments ( Barton, 2000 ). These studies require an experimental group, to whom the
Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray and Julia L. Allan
to maintain ADL and IADL abilities during old age are of prime importance. Mounting evidence from large-scale epidemiological studies, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analytic reviews offer compelling evidence that physical activity positively influences older adults’ abilities to carry out
Marjan Mosalman Haghighi, Yorgi Mavros and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh
exercise or behavioral programs on long-term PA and related health outcomes in type 2 diabetes within published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In addition, we sought to define cohort, intervention, and PA measurement characteristics predictive of successful long-term behavioral changes. Methods Data
Rodney P. Joseph, Kathryn E. Royse and Tanya J. Benitez
the same PA promotion website (ie, Benitez et al 27 tested an adapted version of the website used in the larger full-scale randomized controlled trials conducted by Marcus et al 29 ). Intervention materials of these studies included information on cultural-specific attitudes and barriers to PA
Oluwaseyi Osho, Oluwatoyosi Owoeye and Susan Armijo-Olivo
, & Haines, 2013 ; Nyman & Victor, 2012 ; Simek, McPhate, & Haines 2012 ). To quantify the effectiveness of a FPEP, the effect size is particularly valuable; it allows relative comparison between the intervention and control groups in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) ( Robert, 2002 ). It is a simple way
Helen M. Binkley and Lauren E. Rudd
based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Due to the unexpected volume of studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and studies that were not randomized controlled trial (RCT) or quasi-RCT were excluded prior to detailed appraisal. All included studies were critically appraised using the