Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. Evidence is increasing that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. On the basis of daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3,500 kcal and 2,650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3–8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2–1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30 g amounts and timed appropriately after training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient-dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e., calcium and iron) may be advisable. Although sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid-intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multidisciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment, and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions.
Dan Benardot, Wes Zimmermann, Gregory R. Cox and Saul Marks
Catherine Elliot, Christin Lang, Serge Brand, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse and Markus Gerber
This study examines how students who met the current recommendations for vigorous physical activity (VPA) of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) differ from peers who did not reach these standards with regard to self-reported burnout, before and after controlling for light physical activity and moderate physical activity. A sample of 144 vocational students (M age = 16.2 years, SD = 1.13, 98 males) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure, and the School Burnout Inventory. Bivariate correlations revealed that only VPA was associated with reduced burnout. Both the ACSM and CDC guidelines were useful to identify significant differences in burnout symptoms between students who met versus did not meet the standards. Health policy makers should develop strategies to integrate more VPA into the lives of adolescent students so as to reach a minimum of 60 min per week.
Evan K. Perrault
Despite being the largest subset of the NCAA, Division III sports programs have had very little research dedicated to them regarding student attendance motivations. This study surveyed 620 undergraduate students at a midsize Division III school (total enrollment 10,902) to determine their attitudes toward attending athletic events and potential motivators for getting them into the stands. Students who had personally interacted with an athlete or coach had better attitudes toward university athletics than those who had not. Results also supported predictions of the theory of planned behavior, finding that attitudes toward individual sports were the strongest predictor of intentions to attend future games. Open-ended responses also asked students why they do not attend games and what would get them to attend more games. Analyses of these responses are followed by key recommendations for communications professionals at similar-size institutions seeking ways to increase student attendance at their athletic events.
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Yu Kyoum Kim
The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review of how consumer satisfaction research in the sport management and the nonsport literatures has developed over the past several decades, and, with that information, to propose a new comparison standard in the formation of sport consumer satisfaction. Though several alternative explanations of consumer satisfaction have been developed, expectancy-disconfirmation framework is the theoretical foundation most used in consumer satisfaction research. However, expectancy-disconfirmation theory does not allow researchers to fully assess the potential complexity of sport consumer satisfaction. Therefore, in addition to recommendations for improving the application of expectancy-disconfirmation, we also propose counterfactual thinking as an alternative comparison standard in determining sport consumer satisfaction. The proposed framework contributes to the literature on sport consumer behavior by illustrating how sport consumers use a “what might have been” rather than “what was” heuristic to explain satisfaction judgments with their sport consumption experiences.
Kara N. Gange, Michael C. Kjellerson and Christiane J. Berdan
Context: Therapeutic ultrasound clinical parameters are provided in many modality textbooks based on research performed with the Omnisound brand. Literature exists to support variability in heating rates with different manufacturers. It is unknown if the Dynatron Solaris heats at rates consistent with textbook recommendations. Objective: Determine the rate of tissue-temperature increases in the medial triceps surae with the Dynatron Solaris® 708 ultrasound unit. Design: 3 × 13 repeated measures. Independent variables were tissue depth (1.0, 1.75, and 2.5 cm) and time (13 time periods throughout the treatment). Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 30 healthy volunteers (female = 11, male = 19; age 21.30 ± 1.95 y; adipose thickness = 0.54 ± 0.15 cm). Intervention: Three thermocouples were inserted into the medial triceps surae at 1.0, 1.75, and 2.5-cm depths. A continuous 3-MHz, 1.0-W/cm2 for 20 minutes ultrasound treatment was performed with a Dynatron Solaris 708 machine. Main Outcome Measures: Intramuscular tissue-temperature increases at each depth throughout the 20-min treatment. Results: There was a significant main effect of depth (F 2,52 = 29.76, P < 0.001) and time (F 12,312 = 181.59, P < .001) and a significant interaction between times and depths (F 24,624 = 15.49, P < .001). The 1.0-cm depth increased 4.22 ± 1.58°C in 6 min (0.70°C/min rate), the 1.75-cm depth increased 3.93 ± 1.94°C in 10 min (0.39°C/min rate), and the 2.5-cm depth increased 3.60 ± 1.86°C in 20 min (0.18°C/min rate). Conclusions: The rate of tissue-temperature increase varied at each depth and the 1.0-cm depth was the only rate similar to textbooks. Clinicians will not reach tissue-temperature goals using Omnisound textbook parameters on the Dynatron Solaris 708 at depths greater than 1.0 cm, which may affect clinicians, educators, and state-certification exams.
Andrew J. Mowen and Birgitta L. Baker
The United States’ first National Physical Activity Plan is now under development. This plan follows the release of new physical activity guidelines and seeks to address the nation’s ongoing physical inactivity and obesity crisis. For this plan to be successful, all facets of American culture need to unify behind its recommendations and action steps. Guidance for this plan involves active participation from a variety of sectors, including the park, recreation, fitness, and sport (PRFS) sector.
In this white paper, we discuss the potential of the PRFS sector in addressing America’s physical inactivity. Specifically, we provide a brief description, history, and scope of the PRFS sector; present evidence concerning linkages between this sector and physical activity; and discuss existing challenges and emerging opportunities for promoting physical activity. We conclude by suggesting PRFS recommendations to promote physical activity based on anticipated effectiveness, reach, scope, and sustainability.
Academic articles, professional reports, and physical activity plans were reviewed to summarize the evidence concerning PRFS sector strategies for increasing physical activity. Recommendations: Based on our review, we propose several sector-specific proximity, place, program, partnership, promotion, people, policy, and performance indicator recommendations for improving physical activity in the United States.
Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger
and/or physical function. The importance of this research is that it examines the relationship of meeting criterion-based physical activity recommendations by both self-report and accelerometry, and it includes self-reported HRQOL using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System
Mirja Hannele Hirvensalo, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Shlomit Rind and Jack Guralnik
Prescribing the correct exercise program is a challenge for older adults with multiple physiological impairments. The authors evaluated an assessment instrument that incorporates results of multiple categories of impairment, including strength, balance, gait, vision, and cognitive function. The physical therapist made judgments on the relative impact of 9 different impairments on specific exercises and on the total impact of all impairments on particular exercises. In a cohort age 75–85 y, functional limitations, impaired balance, pain, and low physical endurance were estimated to have the largest impact on the ability to carry out exercise activities, primarily walking, stair climbing, balance exercises, and stationary bicycling. The assessments revealed that the ability to exercise was related to objective measures of function, indicating that the therapist incorporated such objective measures into the impairment-impact rating. The impairment-impact assessment facilitates creating individualized exercise prescriptions for individuals with impairments.
Summer Dawn DeBastiani, Dianna D. Carroll, Melissa Cunningham, Sarah Lee and Janet Fulton
To measure parental awareness of government physical activity guidelines and knowledge of the amount of physical activity recommended for youth (ie, 60 minutes per day, 7 days per week) as specified in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.
A cross-sectional national sample of adults responded to physical activity guideline questions added to the HealthStyles survey in 2009 (n = 1552). The prevalence of parents aware of government physical activity guidelines and knowledgeable of the youth physical activity guideline, specifically, was estimated overall and by parental demographic characteristics (sex, education, income level, race/ethnicity, age group, marital status) and body mass index.
In 2009, 34.8% of parents reported being aware of physical activity guidelines, and 9.7% were knowledgeable of the amount of physical activity recommended for youth.
Many parents lack awareness and knowledge of the youth physical activity guidelines. The low prevalence estimates suggest the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans has not been effectively disseminated. These results may also indicate a need for effective communication strategies to educate and inform parents, an important influencer of children’s health behaviors.
Shannon L. Michael, Edward Coffield, Sarah M. Lee and Janet E. Fulton
Federal guidelines state that youth should participate in a variety of physical activity (PA) they find enjoyable. Little is known, however, about how variety and enjoyment are associated with PA participation among adolescents.
Data came from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative survey of adolescents. Path analysis was used to examine the association of a variety of self-reported PA, defined as the number of activities and activity types (ie, team sports/weightlifting, individual activities, and other competitive/recreational sports), on self-reported PA enjoyment and participation. The analysis also examined whether enjoyment mediates the association between a variety of PA and participation. Separate models were estimated for boys and girls.
Number of activities was associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. For boys and girls, team sports/weightlifting was associated with increased participation, and individual activities were indirectly associated with increased participation through enjoyment. For boys, team sports/weightlifting was indirectly related with participation.
These findings suggest that participation in a variety of PA is associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. Providing opportunities for adolescents to engage in a variety of activities might help them identify PA they enjoy and facilitate lifelong PA habits.