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Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi and Antonio La Torre

It is becoming increasingly evident that sleep plays an essential role for human health, and it represents an important biophysiological variable for athletes’ well-being and recovery. 1 The International Olympic Committee recently highlighted the importance of obtaining sufficient sleep volume

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Yuya Ueda, Takehiko Matsushita, Yohei Shibata, Kohei Takiguchi, Akihiro Kida, Daisuke Araki, Noriyuki Kanzaki, Yuichi Hoshino, Rei Ono, Yoshitada Sakai and Ryosuke Kuroda

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been widely performed to treat patients with ACL injuries, and the overall outcomes were satisfactory in previous reports. 1 Although most patients regain knee stability and functional recovery after ACL reconstruction, 2 , 3 quadriceps strength

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Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis and Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

in multiple training sessions or competitions on the same day, muscle glycogen stores need to be replenished rapidly during the recovery period ( Williams & Rollo, 2015 ). The provision of adequate exogenous CHOs can increase muscle glycogen repletion during rest after glycogen-depleting exercise

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Tom Clifford

; Howatson & van Someren, 2008 ). Indeed, although there are equivocal findings between individual studies—owing, in part, to the paucity of quality studies available—the recovery of muscle function and other symptoms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD; e.g., muscle soreness, inflammation

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Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova

Several physical therapy methods were used as postexercise recovery strategies, alleviating musculoskeletal alterations secondary to training and competition. Among these interventions, contrast therapy—which alternates between hot and cold treatment modalities 1 —whole-body cryotherapy, and cold

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Adam D. Osmond, Dean J. Directo, Marcus L. Elam, Gabriela Juache, Vince C. Kreipke, Desiree E. Saralegui, Robert Wildman, Michael Wong and Edward Jo

, and range of motion, which are ultimately attributed to transient localized inflammation and soreness. 1 – 5 In efforts to mitigate EIMD or facilitate recovery to optimize subsequent performance, a variety of practical strategies, such as nutritional supplementation, ice therapy, compression garments

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

overuse injuries, efficient muscle recovery is of special importance during such periods. Although the cellular mechanisms driving the acute regenerative processes are not well elucidated, a growing number of studies have unveiled the benefits of protein feeding strategies in regard to optimizing recovery

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Dean Norris, David Joyce, Jason Siegler, James Clock and Ric Lovell

constraints, longitudinal measurement of many of these markers is rarely feasible, as is finding a singular metric that is indicative of all fatigue domains. Of these markers, however, recovery of NF is accepted as one of the most practically viable due to its relative ease of assessment and reported

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Ian Rollo, Franco M. Impellizzeri, Matteo Zago and F. Marcello Iaia

The physical-performance profiles of subelite male footballers were monitored during 6 wk of a competitive season. The same squad of players played either 1 (1G, n = 15) or 2 (2G, n = 15) competitive matches per week. On weeks 0, 3, and 6, 48 h postmatch, players completed countermovement jump (CMJ), 10- and 20-m sprints, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (YYIRT), and the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire. Both groups undertook 2 weekly training sessions. The 2G showed after 6 wk lower YYIRT (–11% to 3%, 90% CI –15.8% to –6.8%; P < .001) and CMJ performances (–18.7%, –21.6 to –15.9%; P = .007) and higher 10-m (4.4%, 1.8–6.9%; P = .007) and 20-m sprints values (4.7%, 2.9% to 6.4%; P < .001). No differences were found at 3 wk (.06 < P < .99). No changes over time (.169 < P < .611) and no differences time × group interactions (.370 < P < .550) were found for stress, recovery, and the Stress Recovery Index. In conclusion players’ ability to sprint, jump, and perform repeated intense exercise was impaired when playing 2 competitive matches a week over 6 wk.

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Milou Beelen, Louise M. Burke, Martin J. Gibala and Luc J.C. van Loon

During postexercise recovery, optimal nutritional intake is important to replenish endogenous substrate stores and to facilitate muscle-damage repair and reconditioning. After exhaustive endurance-type exercise, muscle glycogen repletion forms the most important factor determining the time needed to recover. Postexercise carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion has been well established as the most important determinant of muscle glycogen synthesis. Coingestion of protein and/or amino acids does not seem to further increase muscle glycogensynthesis rates when CHO intake exceeds 1.2 g · kg−1 · hr−1. However, from a practical point of view it is not always feasible to ingest such large amounts of CHO. The combined ingestion of a small amount of protein (0.2–0.4 g · (0.2−0.4 g · kg−1 · hr−1) with less CHO (0.8 g · kg−1 · hr−1) stimulates endogenous insulin release and results in similar muscle glycogen-repletion rates as the ingestion of 1.2 g · kg−1 · hr−1 CHO. Furthermore, postexercise protein and/or amino acid administration is warranted to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, inhibit protein breakdown, and allow net muscle protein accretion. The consumption of ~20 g intact protein, or an equivalent of ~9 g essential amino acids, has been reported to maximize muscle protein-synthesis rates during the first hours of postexercise recovery. Ingestion of such small amounts of dietary protein 5 or 6 times daily might support maximal muscle protein-synthesis rates throughout the day. Consuming CHO and protein during the early phases of recovery has been shown to positively affect subsequent exercise performance and could be of specific benefit for athletes involved in multiple training or competition sessions on the same or consecutive days.