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Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly

Optimizing postexercise recovery windows is an invaluable aspect of athletes’ physical preparation cycles. The importance of this window is highlighted by the compounding effects of successive training and/or competitive bouts on physiological and physical function, attributed to residual fatigue

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Mary Lynn Manduca and Stephen J. Straub

normal concentration of platelets in an injured area to promote healing and decrease recovery time. 3 Despite the proposed benefits, the effect of PRP on hamstring injuries is unclear. Focused Clinical Question Does the combination of PRP injection and rehabilitation decreased recovery time of acute

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Thomas Sawczuk, Ben Jones, Sean Scantlebury and Kevin Till

It is well established that in order to adapt to a training stimulus, an optimal balance between training stress and recovery is required ( 39 ). Failure to provide appropriate periods of recovery between training sessions and within programs can lead to lowered training capacity ( 9 , 22 ) or

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

Elite athletes are under considerable physiological stress due to high levels of training and performance requirements. 1 Increased stress can have negative effects on performance, particularly if there is an imbalance between training load and recovery. 2 Insufficient recovery can lead to a

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Edward A. Gray, Thomas A. Green, James A. Betts and Javier T. Gonzalez

short-recovery duration, the rate of glycogen repletion is the principal determinant of recovery time ( Alghannam et al., 2016 ; Casey et al., 2000 ). To maximize glycogen repletion, guidelines recommend ingesting 1.0–1.2 g·kg −1 ·hr −1 carbohydrate of moderate- to high-glycemic index during the first

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Julie P. Burland, Adam S. Lepley, Marc Cormier, Lindsay J. DiStefano and Lindsey K. Lepley

strengthen the quadriceps muscle both acutely and well into the chronic phases of recovery. 4 , 5 Quadriceps activation deficits are thought to directly contribute to quadriceps weakness through spinal and cortically driven mechanisms. 5 Rising awareness suggests that the presence of altered peripheral

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Louise M. Burke and Inigo Mujika

Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost–benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

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Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Caroline Young, Greg R. Cox and Chris Irwin

Immediate postexercise access to fruit/fluid via a recovery “station” is a common feature of mass participation sporting events. Yet little evidence exists examining their impact on subsequent dietary intake. The aim of this study was to determine if access to fruit/water/sports drinks within a recovery station significantly alters dietary and fluid intakes in the immediate postexercise period and influences hydration status the next morning. 127 (79 males) healthy participants (M ± SD, age = 22.5 ± 3.5y, body mass (BM) = 73 ± 13kg) completed two self-paced morning 10km runs separated by 1 week. Immediately following the first run, participants were randomly assigned to enter (or not) the recovery station for 30min. All participants completed the alternate recovery option the following week. Participants recorded BM before and after exercise and measured Urine Specific Gravity (USG) before running and again the following morning. For both trial days, participants also completed 24h food and fluid records via a food diary that included photographs. Paired-sample t tests were used to assess differences in hydration and dietary outcome variables (Recovery vs. No Recovery). No difference in preexercise USG or BM change from exercise were observed between treatments (p’s > .05). Attending the recovery zone resulted in a greater total daily fluid (Recovery = 3.37 ± 1.46L, No Recovery = 3.16 ± 1.32L, p = .009) and fruit intake (Recovery = 2.37 ± 1.76 servings, No Recovery = 1.55 ± 1.61 servings, p > .001), but had no influence on daily total energy (Recovery = 10.15 ± 4.2MJ, No Recovery = 10.15 ± 3.9MJ), or macronutrient intakes (p > .05). Next morning USG values were not different between treatments (Recovery = 1.018 ± 0.007, No Recovery = 1.019 ± 0.009, p > .05). Recovery stations provide an opportunity to modify dietary intake which promote positive lifestyle behaviors in recreational athletes.

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Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Molly Curcio

athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports are at higher risk than those from ballgame sports (e.g.,  Krentz & Warschburger, 2011 ). There are no known studies that report athlete-specific treatment and recovery rate data; however, literature reviews on general ED populations indicate that treatment

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Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi and Antonio La Torre

It is becoming increasingly evident that sleep plays an essential role for human health, and it represents an important biophysiological variable for athletes’ well-being and recovery. 1 The International Olympic Committee recently highlighted the importance of obtaining sufficient sleep volume