Depression rates in collegiate student-athletes in the literature are varied and inconclusive, and data have only explored depression symptoms utilizing a crosssectional design. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the temporal course of depression symptoms in student-athletes. Student-athletes (N = 93) from a Division II institution completed six administrations of a brief depression symptom screen once every 2 weeks throughout the fall athletic season. Ten (10.8%) student-athletes’ PHQ-9 surveys were red-flagged for moderate to severe depression symptoms at least once throughout the season. A mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant interaction effect for time and sex in depression symptom scores, F(3.69, 335.70) = 10.36, p ≤ .001. The repeated-measures design of this study suggests that there are clinical benefits for screening for depression symptoms in student-athletes at multiple intervals throughout an athletic season.
Lindsey C. McGuire, Yvette M. Ingram, Michael L. Sachs and Ryan T. Tierney
This research explored people’s expression of parasocial interaction (PSI) on Boston Red Sox pitcher Curt Schilling’s blog, 38pitches.com. A thematic analysis using grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) and constant comparative methodology of 1,337 postings on Schilling’s blog was conducted. Three parasocial aspects emerged from data analysis: identification, admonishment and advice giving, and criticism. The findings of the study provide support for previous research that suggests identification is a PSI component, and given the large presence of admonishment and criticism, the findings extend PSI theory by suggesting that PSI theory must account for and encompass negative relational behaviors. The results also indicate that people’s use of information and communication technologies is reconfiguring parasocial relationships as fans take an active role in soliciting and communicating with professional athletes, subsequently creating more opportunities for PSI to occur.
Chang Wan Woo, Jung Kyu Kim, Cynthia Nichols and Lu Zheng
Numerous studies examining the portrayals of gender, race, and nationality in sports commentary have been conducted through the years; however, comparative analyses of commentaries from different countries have been rare. This study examined commentary from 3 different countries (the U.S., Chinese Taipei, and South Korea) during a Major League Baseball (MLB) World Series. An entertainment theory schema was adopted and the 3 countries were categorized based on dispositional relativity (affiliation) with MLB. Findings indicate that South Korean broadcasts, which had the lowest affiliation with MLB, were biased toward the Boston Red Sox and presented the most evaluative commentaries; U.S. commentaries were generally positive and contained the largest portion of informative comments; and Chinese commentaries were unbiased and also provided a large number of informative comments. This implies that sports games using the same visual images can be framed differently by commentators based on the disposition (affiliation) level of audiences.
Ariel J. Dimler, Kimberley McFadden and Tara-Leigh F. McHugh
, age, and gender. Contrary to expectations of gendered exercise contexts (i.e., those contexts that are stereotypically perceived as women’s exercise), such as various forms of dance and group exercise/fitness classes ( McGannon & Spence, 2012 ), women in pole classes are “often red-faced and sweating
Ines Pfeffer and Tilo Strobach
(e.g., GREEN in red ink). Typically, reaction times (RTs) in incongruent trials are larger than in congruent trials (i.e., the Stroop effect), indicating the requirement to inhibit or to override the tendency to produce a more dominant or automatic response on naming the color word in this task
Robert G. Weaver, Aaron Beighle, Heather Erwin, Michelle Whitfield, Michael W. Beets and James W. Hardin
with the widest range of MVPA%perm estimates (range = 13.2%–66.7%) and graphically depicted each child’s activity [eg, MVPA (marked as green) or sedentary (marked as red)] for each time segment over the duration of the entire lesson (see Figure 6 ). During this lesson, only 24.5% of time segments
Ben Serrien, Maggy Goossens and Jean-Pierre Baeyens
: left (red) = year 1, right (blue) = year 2 (see color online). Time = 0 indicates the point of ball impact. Coordination Variability The mean (±SD) of the CV (arbitrary Euclidean distance; dimensionless) at year 1 and 2 were 570.7 (±51.5) and 461.4 (±55.6) for the male participants and 577.8 (± 58
Anthony G. Delli Paoli, Alan L. Smith and Matthew B. Pontifex
participants to identify if the current stimulus matches or does not match a stimulus presented n trials previously ( Carlson et al., 1998 ; Kirchner, 1958 ). Trials contained one of six 3.4 × 3.4-cm uniquely colored shape stimuli (i.e., green circle, red crescent, blue cross, purple star, orange square
Andrew F. Clark, Joannah Campbell, Patricia Tucker, Piotr Wilk and Jason A. Gilliland
*, as seen in Figure 4 , show locations of significant clustering throughout the city with cold spots (blue) representing significant clustering of low usage rates and hot spots (red) representing significant clustering of high usage rates. The cold spots are in the southwest quadrant of the city
Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke and James Hardy
buttons without error. Whenever an error occurred the whole 4 × 4 matrix lit up in red, and participants had to start a new trial from the beginning (Figure 1c ). The sequence was the same in all acquisition blocks across all participants (Figure 1a ). This task was chosen for members of the explicit