This study examined the impact of exposure to corporate social responsibility (CSR) messages on individuals’ attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a Major League Baseball (MLB) team’s CSR efforts. Using a 2 (information source: team source or a third-party source) × 2 (CSR initiatives: efforts to help cancer patients or military appreciation recognition) with two nonfactorial control conditions (team source or a third-party source) experimental design, this study aims to identify how factors such as information source, perceived sincerity, and different types of CSR activities impact a MLB team’s CSR messaging on social media. Path analysis was used to examine significant paths between variables; results indicated that CSR messages generated a halo effect, thus providing implications for how MLB teams should develop CSR strategies and most effectively communicate about these efforts. Theoretical and practical implications of study results are discussed.
Joon Kyoung Kim, Holly K. Ott, Kevin Hull and Minhee Choi
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Molly Hayes Sauder and Cheryl R. Rode
found that the quality of faculty members’ relationships with their department head had a significant effect on job satisfaction ( Byrne, Chughtai, Flood, & Willis, 2012 ). In a thorough review of multiple studies from academia, Sabagh, Hall, and Saroyan ( 2018 ) found that, in general, higher levels of
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Gareth J. Jones, Kristy McCray and Robin Hardin
sexes. .750 RapeMyth16—Many women tend to exaggerate the problem of male violence. .719 RapeMyth22—Women often accuse their husbands of marital rape just to retaliate for a failed relationship. .696 RapeMyth23—The discussion about sexual harassment on the job has mainly resulted in many
Marie Hardin, Bu Zhong and Erin Whiteside
U.S. sports operations have been described as newsroom “toy departments,” at least partly because of their deviation from journalistic norms. Recently, however, more attention has focused on issues of ethics and professionalism; the failure of sports journalists to adequately cover steroid use in Major League Baseball has also directed critical attention to their roles and motives. This study, through a telephone survey of journalists in U.S. newsrooms, examines sports reporters’ practices, beliefs, and attitudes in regard to ethics and professionalism and how their ethics and practice relate. Results indicate that reporters’ attitudes toward issues such as voting in polls, taking free tickets, gambling, and becoming friends with sources are related to their views of public-service or investigative journalism. In addition, friendships with sources are linked to values stereotypically associated with sports as a toy-department occupation. These results suggest that adherence to ethical standards is linked to an outlook that embraces sports coverage as public service.
Beth J. Sheehan and Mark A. McDonald
Scant research has been conducted on the relationship between experience-based courses and emotional competency development (Ashkanasy & Dasborough, 2003; Brown, 2003; Clark, Callister & Wallace, 2003; Jaeger, 2002). The current study utilized a mixed method design to determine if students’ emotional competency could be developed during only one semester without any formal instruction in emotional intelligence theory. Changes in the experimental group and differences between experimental and comparison group students’ emotional competency were investigated using quantitative (ECI-U) and qualitative (Critical Incident Interview and exit interview) methods. Study results supported the contention that an experienced-based course can positively impact students’ emotional competency development.
Norm O’Reilly, Denyse Lafrance Horning and Ghazal Bandeh-Bahman
This case study presents seven challenges regarding the implementation of a National Sport Organization (NSO) loyalty program. Drawing on relationship marketing and sponsorship, the case traces the evolution of the Club Hockey Canada loyalty program, managed by Hockey Canada, a large and successful NSO. The case describes the following seven challenges for managers: resource allocation, process management, branding, rules and regulations for a key element of the program (i.e., Puck Bucks), risk management, sponsorship, and cost recovery. Targeted to upper year undergraduate and graduate students in sport finance or sport marketing, the case is based on information provided by Hockey Canada and secondary research. In completing the case, students will be able to learn about the seven challenges in building a successful loyalty program.
Jo Williams and Colleen Colles
Increased accountability has led institutions of higher education to search for assessment tools that provide documentation on the achievement of specific learning outcomes. Portfolio assessment has become commonplace among many disciplines but limited work has been presented within sport management. The purpose of this research is to present an adaptable portfolio assessment framework that will allow faculty to assess student learning outcomes using the internship portfolio. Student achievement is assessed in relation to the development of broad-based skills and the application of curriculum content standards. Over 500 entries from 35 portfolios were analyzed via scoring rubrics. Data collected indicated that with appropriate support, the portfolio framework could be used to assess individual student achievement within the desired areas. A positive relationship between portfolio scores and major GPA was found; however, no significant differences in portfolio scores were identified based on job descriptions.
Jacqueline L. Beres and Jess C. Dixon
Mentoring has typically been studied in business environments, with fewer studies focusing on academic contexts and even fewer in the field of sport management. This study examined the mentoring relationships, and specifically the mentoring functions that occurred among sport management doctoral dissertation advisors (mentors) and their doctoral students (protégés). Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 individuals. Participants collectively described examples of all of Kram’s (1988) mentoring functions, with coaching, counseling, and exposure and visibility cited most frequently. Fewer instances of protection and direct sponsorship were mentioned, although there was evidence of considerable indirect sponsorship. Protégés provided more examples of role modeling as compared with their mentors, and the entire process of completing a doctoral degree can be viewed as a challenging assignment. A discussion of these findings within the context of the relevant previous academic literature and suggestions for future research are also provided.
Christopher Atwater, Jered Borup, Robert Baker and Richard E. West
This qualitative case study examined student perceptions of video communication with their instructor in an online research and writing course for sport and recreation graduate students. All students participated in two personalized Skype video calls with the instructor and received two video and text feedback critiques of their written projects. Eight students were interviewed following the course. Despite minor technological and scheduling concerns, students found that their Skype calls helped form a relationship with their instructor and improved their confidence in the course. Students found that video feedback recordings on their written projects were elaborate and friendly, while text feedback comments tended to be more convenient, efficient, and concise. However, all students reported that the advantages of video feedback outweighed the advantages of text. The article concludes with recommendations for future research and for online instructors who wish to effectively blend these forms of communication.
Samuel Y. Todd, Ian Christie, Marshall J. Magnusen and Kenneth J. Harris
This case highlights key elements in Pelled’s (1996) model of diversity, and is based on real life interactions of an actual grounds crew in intercollegiate baseball. The small work group of three individuals collectively prepares the grounds of a new collegiate ballpark for opening day. In the course of daily facility maintenance, the staff encounters both affective and substantive conflict according to Pelled’s model. This leads to both destructive and constructive performance outcomes. Also of issue in the case is the differential relationship that the supervisor shares with each of his subordinates, or leader member exchange (LMX). Together with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) elements of group conflict arising from demographic diversity and (2) the nature of LMX within sport organizations. An overview of theory, student applications, and discussion questions and answers are provided to aid instructors in teaching this case.