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Tyson M. Bain, Georita M. Frierson, Elaine Trudelle-Jackson and James R. Morrow Jr.

Background:

Self-report measures have been validated and are widely used. Interest currently lies in the development of simple, valid methods that can be used in any location to determine level of PA in large populations/samples. The purpose of this report is to illustrate tracking of physical activity behaviors and musculoskeletal injury reports on a weekly basis via the Internet.

Methods:

The Women’s Injury Study (WIN) methodology includes use of BRFSS-related physical activity items that are completed online by more than 900 women weekly for an average of 3 years.

Results:

With more than 45,000 weekly physical activity and injury logs, the percentage of total logs submitted via online records is 91%. Self-reported pedometer steps are consistent with similar, smaller research samples.

Conclusions:

This report suggests that Internet tracking is a viable means of assessing nearly real-time physical activity, describes the process of developing and monitoring self-reported physical activity behaviors via the Internet, and provides recommendations for others considering such methods.

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Richard P. Troiano, Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel, Gregory J. Welk, Neville Owen and Barbara Sternfeld

Context:

Advances in device-based measures have led researchers to question the value of reported measures of physical activity or sedentary behavior. The premise of the Workshop on Measurement of Active and Sedentary Behaviors: Closing the Gaps in Self-Report Methods, held in July 2010, was that assessment of behavior by self-report is a valuable approach.

Objective:

To provide suggestions to optimize the value of reported physical activity and sedentary behavior, we 1) discuss the constructs that devices and reports of behavior can measure, 2) develop a framework to help guide decision-making about the best approach to physical activity and sedentary behavior assessment in a given situation, and 3) address the potential for combining reported behavior methods with device-based monitoring to enhance both approaches.

Process:

After participation in a workshop breakout session, coauthors summarized the ideas presented and reached consensus on the material presented here.

Conclusions:

To select appropriate physical activity assessment methods and correctly interpret the measures obtained, researchers should carefully consider the purpose for assessment, physical activity constructs of interest, characteristics of the population and measurement tool, and the theoretical link between the exposure and outcome of interest.

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Craig Donnachie, Kate Hunt, Nanette Mutrie, Jason M.R. Gill and Paul Kelly

options and challenges ( Warren et al., 2010 ). Subjective (i.e., self-reported) PA measures are commonly employed in population and intervention studies as they are easy to use and cost less than objective (i.e., device-based) assessment. Wearable device-based technologies, such as accelerometers, have

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Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Lee Smith, Ai Koyanagi and Mark A. Tully

indication of the correlation between PA and vision, they do not explore the association between PA and VI over time, and so limits the interpretation of causality ( Schmidt, Tittlbach, Bos, & Woll, 2017 ). This study aims to understand the association between self-reported PA and self-rated vision in a

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Silvia A. González, Joel D. Barnes, Patrick Abi Nader, Dolores Susana Andrade Tenesaca, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Karla I. Galaviz, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Piyawat Katewongsa, Juan López-Taylor, Yang Liu, Bilyana Mileva, Angélica María Ochoa Avilés, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam and Mark S. Tremblay

settings of influence for its promotion, is needed. In response to these needs, Active Healthy Kids Canada and subsequently the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance (AHKGA) have led the harmonized development of country-specific physical activity Report Cards, synthesizing the best available evidence on how

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Carolina F. Wilke, Samuel P. Wanner, Weslley H.M. Santos, Eduardo M. Penna, Guilherme P. Ramos, Fabio Y. Nakamura and Rob Duffield

or training recovery timeline provides reference for the expected extent of readiness to perform, reported as 72 hours after soccer matches 2 and 24 hours after soccer small-sided games training. 3 However, such expected time for postmatch recovery is based on mean cohort (team) data in single

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Stacy A. Clemes, Beverley M. David, Yi Zhao, Xu Han and Wendy Brown

Background:

In light of evidence linking sedentary behaviors to health outcomes, there have been calls for the measurement of sedentary behavior in surveillance studies. This study examined the convergent validity of 2 self-report measures of sitting time and accelerometer-determined sedentary time (minutes/day of <100 counts/minute).

Methods:

44 adults wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days, during which they also recorded daily sitting time in a diary, in response to a single-item question. After 7 days, participants completed a new domain-specific questionnaire to assess usual weekday and weekend-day sitting time. Total sitting times recorded from the self-report measures were compared with accelerometer-determined sedentary time.

Results:

Total sitting time calculated from the domain-specific questionnaire did not differ significantly from accelerometer-determined sedentary time on weekdays (mean difference [±SE] = –14 ± 28 mins/day) and weekend days (–4 ± 45 mins/day, both P > .05). Sitting time was significantly underestimated using the single-item specific-day question on weekdays (–173 ± 18 mins/day) and weekend days (–219 ± 23 mins/day, both P < .001).

Conclusions:

When assessed via self-report, the estimation of total sitting time is improved by summing sitting times reported across different domains. The continued improvement of self-report measures of sitting time will be important if we are to further our understanding of the links between sedentary behavior and health.

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Heidi R. Thornton, Jace A. Delaney, Grant M. Duthie, Brendan R. Scott, William J. Chivers, Colin E. Sanctuary and Ben J. Dascombe

Purpose:

To identify contributing factors to the incidence of illness for professional team-sport athletes, using training load (TL), self-reported illness, and well-being data.

Methods:

Thirty-two professional rugby league players (26.0 ± 4.8 y, 99.1 ± 9.6 kg, 1.84 ± 0.06 m) were recruited from the same club. Players participated in prescribed training and responded to a series of questionnaires to determine the presence of self-reported illness and markers of well-being. Internal TL was determined using the session rating of perceived exertion. These data were collected over 29 wk, across the preparatory and competition macrocycles.

Results:

The predictive models developed recognized increases in internal TL (strain values of >2282 AU, weekly TL >2786 AU, and monotony >0.78 AU) to best predict when athletes are at increased risk of self-reported illness. In addition, a reduction in overall well-being (<7.25 AU) in the presence of increased internal TL, as previously stated, was highlighted as a contributor to self-reported-illness occurrence.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that self-report data can be successfully used to provide a novel understanding of the interactions between competition-associated stressors experienced by professional team-sport athletes and their susceptibility to illness. This may help coaching staff more effectively monitor players during the season and potentially implement preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of illnesses occurring.

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Kelly L. Adler, P. Christopher Cook and Brian D. Giordano

Injury to the rectus femoris (RF) myotendinous complex is the most common location of quadriceps injury, due to combined loads of stretch and eccentric muscular activation. To our knowledge, open proximal RF repair has been reported, but a thorough description of postoperative rehabilitation and functional progression of athletic activity has not been described. This case report outlines the rehabilitation of a 30-year-old female following open proximal RF repair after 15 months of failed conservative treatment. Six months postoperatively she returned to competitive recreational soccer with no complaints.

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Elva M. Arredondo, Tamar Mendelson, Christina Holub, Nancy Espinoza and Simon Marshall

Context:

The validity of physical activity (PA) self-report measures can be a problem when using these measures with target populations that differ from the population for which the measures were originally developed.

Objectives:

Describe an approach to further tailor PA self-report measures to a target community, and report on focus group and cognitive interview findings.

Process:

Topics relevant to culturally tailoring measures are discussed, including translation, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. We describe examples from our own work, including focus groups and cognitive interviews conducted to assess Latinos’ interpretations of PA questions derived from various epidemiological surveys that were developed in White communities.

Findings:

Findings from focus groups and cognitive interviews provide valuable information about the comprehension, interpretation, and cultural relevance of the PA questions to Latino communities.

Conclusions:

It is recommended that investigators collect formative data to better assess the equivalence of items being applied to a different cultural group. Guidelines for cultural attunement of self-report instruments are described to promote more uniform and rigorous processes of adaptation and facilitate cross-cultural investigations.