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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai

was considered statistically different. All analyses were done with SPSS-22 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results Demographic and Professional Data A total of 71 individuals responded to the electronic survey, and 68 met the inclusion criteria and completed the questionnaire. The average age of

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Kenneth Ravizza and Thomas Osborne

Described is a preperformance cognitive-behavioral routine that was developed for the University of Nebraska football team. The routine is based on the premise that to perform effectively, football players must focus on one play at a time by exhibiting self-control and taking responsibility for optimal performance. The resulting 3-step “ready, respond, and refocus” routine emphasized that the play begins with the “ready” signal in the huddle, is followed by the play or “respond” component, and ends with a whistle. The time period from the end of one play to the beginning of the next is the athlete’s time to “refocus,” process, and mentally let go of the previous play. Examples of the “ready, respond, and refocus” routine are given and ways of implementing and teaching it are discussed.

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Arne Guellich and Stephen Seiler


To compare the intensity distribution during cycling training among elite track cyclists who improved or decreased in ergometer power at 4 mM blood lactate during a 15 wk training period.


51 young male German cyclists (17.4 ± 0.5 y; 30 international, 21 national junior finalists) performed cycle ergometer testing at the onset and at the end of a 15 wk basic preparation period, and reported their daily volumes of defined exercise types and intensity categories. Training organization was compared between two subgroups who improved (Responders, n = 17; ΔPLa4⋅kg-1 = +11 ± 4%) or who decreased in ergometer performance (Non-Responders, n = 17; ΔPLa4⋅kg-1 = –7 ± 6%).


Responders and Non-Responders did not differ significantly in the time invested in noncycling specific training or in the total cycling distance performed. They did differ in their cycling intensity distribution. Responders accumulated significantly more distance at low intensity (<2 mM blood lactate) while Non-Responders performed more training at near threshold intensity (3–6 mM). Cycling intensity distribution accounted for approx. 60% of the variance of changes in ergometer performance over time. Performance at t1 combined with workout intensity distribution explained over 70% of performance variance at t2.


Variation in lactate profle development is explained to a substantial degree by variation in training intensity distribution in elite cyclists. Training at <2 mM blood lactate appears to play an important role in improving the power output to blood lactate relationship. Excessive training near threshold intensity (3–6 mM blood lactate) may negatively impact lactate threshold development. Further research is required to explain the underlying adaptation mechanisms.

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Stein G.P. Menting, Marco J. Konings, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser and Florentina J. Hettinga

skills throughout adolescence. 13 , 21 It is suggested that through the gathering of experiences in training and competition as well as evaluating previous races, athletes learn to more accurately plan their race and respond to environmental stimuli. 13 Where previous research focused primarily on the

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Brian Hanley, Trent Stellingwerff and Florentina J. Hettinga

comprehensive analysis of pacing profiles, using high-resolution 100-m split times, adopted throughout major championships will better inform coaches about successful approaches to middle-distance racing, and including an analysis of variability will indicate the importance of responding to (or instigating

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Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Paweł Draga, Piotr Zmijewski and Zbigniew Obmiński

(2–12 weeks; Melville et al., 2015 , 2017 ; Rodgers et al., 2016 ; Willoughby & Leutholtz, 2013 ; Willoughby et al., 2014 ). Other indicators of the HPG-axis (e.g., LH, SHBG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone) have also failed to respond to DAA ( Melville et al., 2015 ; Willoughby & Leutholtz

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Jay R. Ebert, Kate E. Webster, Peter K. Edwards, Brendan K. Joss, Peter D’Alessandro, Greg Janes and Peter Annear

. The percentage of respondents selecting each response within the 14 survey questions was tabulated. Results Of the 85 AKS members that were provided the online survey link, 73 (86%) completed and submitted the questionnaire. The results of the survey based on responder status are provided in Table  1

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Shirley M. Bluethmann, Wayne Foo, Renate M. Winkels, Scherezade K. Mama and Kathryn H. Schmitz

cervical) cancer diagnosis between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016, and (c) were able to read, speak, and write in English (and respond to mailed surveys). We randomly sampled 2,500 adult cancer survivors from 28 Central Pennsylvania counties served by the Penn State Cancer Institute, 500 from each

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Anne R. Schutte and John P. Spencer

The timed-initiation paradigm developed by Ghez and colleagues (1997) has revealed two modes of motor planning: continuous and discrete. Continuous responding occurs when targets are separated by less than 60° of spatial angle, and discrete responding occurs when targets are separated by greater than 60°. Although these two modes are thought to reflect the operation of separable strategic planning systems, a new theory of movement preparation, the Dynamic Field Theory, suggests that two modes emerge flexibly from the same system. Experiment 1 replicated continuous and discrete performance using a task modified to allow for a critical test of the single system view. In Experiment 2, participants were allowed to correct their movements following movement initiation (the standard task does not allow corrections). Results showed continuous planning performance at large and small target separations. These results are consistent with the proposal that the two modes reflect the time-dependent “preshaping” of a single planning system.

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Kenneth J. Killian, Rosemary A. Joyce-Petrovich, Lucille Menna and Susan A. Arena

There is little objective evidence to support the belief that swimming is an enjoyable and valuable activity for autistic individuals. In this study, a checklist was used to record the responses of 37 autistic children and youth to water orientation and beginner swim activities. The data indicated that the autistic subjects responded in a predictable and apparently normal manner to a hierarchy of water skills. Also, the subjects displayed a low objection rate to water activities. Strong relationships (r = .95, p < .01) were shown between age and water orientation and also between prior experience and water orientation (r = .88, p < .01). The findings support the literature in that the majority of subjects responded well to, or at least tolerated, water activities. Swimming pool activities may offer potential learning opportunities for many autistic individuals and should be investigated further as an avenue for improving a variety of physical, academic, or social skills.