have used online journaling as a practical means to access participants while respecting their time commitments. Finally, we asked our participants to respond to the work-family conflict scale, a previously validated instrument within athletic training. 18 The scale was anchored by a 7-point Likert
Stephanie M. Mazerolle and Chantel Hunter
Raul Reina, Yeshayahu Hutzler, María C. Iniguez-Santiago and Juan A. Moreno-Murcia
( cognitive ) to .80 ( behavioral ) for this scale. Sociodemographic Variables In addition to the attitude and the nature of ability questionnaires, demographic variables were included: gender, age, and previous exposure to people with disabilities. The students responded “yes” or “no” to the questions: (a
Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai
was considered statistically different. All analyses were done with SPSS-22 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results Demographic and Professional Data A total of 71 individuals responded to the electronic survey, and 68 met the inclusion criteria and completed the questionnaire. The average age of
Kenneth Ravizza and Thomas Osborne
Described is a preperformance cognitive-behavioral routine that was developed for the University of Nebraska football team. The routine is based on the premise that to perform effectively, football players must focus on one play at a time by exhibiting self-control and taking responsibility for optimal performance. The resulting 3-step “ready, respond, and refocus” routine emphasized that the play begins with the “ready” signal in the huddle, is followed by the play or “respond” component, and ends with a whistle. The time period from the end of one play to the beginning of the next is the athlete’s time to “refocus,” process, and mentally let go of the previous play. Examples of the “ready, respond, and refocus” routine are given and ways of implementing and teaching it are discussed.
Arne Guellich and Stephen Seiler
To compare the intensity distribution during cycling training among elite track cyclists who improved or decreased in ergometer power at 4 mM blood lactate during a 15 wk training period.
51 young male German cyclists (17.4 ± 0.5 y; 30 international, 21 national junior finalists) performed cycle ergometer testing at the onset and at the end of a 15 wk basic preparation period, and reported their daily volumes of defined exercise types and intensity categories. Training organization was compared between two subgroups who improved (Responders, n = 17; ΔPLa4⋅kg-1 = +11 ± 4%) or who decreased in ergometer performance (Non-Responders, n = 17; ΔPLa4⋅kg-1 = –7 ± 6%).
Responders and Non-Responders did not differ significantly in the time invested in noncycling specific training or in the total cycling distance performed. They did differ in their cycling intensity distribution. Responders accumulated significantly more distance at low intensity (<2 mM blood lactate) while Non-Responders performed more training at near threshold intensity (3–6 mM). Cycling intensity distribution accounted for approx. 60% of the variance of changes in ergometer performance over time. Performance at t1 combined with workout intensity distribution explained over 70% of performance variance at t2.
Variation in lactate profle development is explained to a substantial degree by variation in training intensity distribution in elite cyclists. Training at <2 mM blood lactate appears to play an important role in improving the power output to blood lactate relationship. Excessive training near threshold intensity (3–6 mM blood lactate) may negatively impact lactate threshold development. Further research is required to explain the underlying adaptation mechanisms.
Stein G.P. Menting, Marco J. Konings, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser and Florentina J. Hettinga
skills throughout adolescence. 13 , 21 It is suggested that through the gathering of experiences in training and competition as well as evaluating previous races, athletes learn to more accurately plan their race and respond to environmental stimuli. 13 Where previous research focused primarily on the
Brian Hanley, Trent Stellingwerff and Florentina J. Hettinga
comprehensive analysis of pacing profiles, using high-resolution 100-m split times, adopted throughout major championships will better inform coaches about successful approaches to middle-distance racing, and including an analysis of variability will indicate the importance of responding to (or instigating
Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Paweł Draga, Piotr Zmijewski and Zbigniew Obmiński
(2–12 weeks; Melville et al., 2015 , 2017 ; Rodgers et al., 2016 ; Willoughby & Leutholtz, 2013 ; Willoughby et al., 2014 ). Other indicators of the HPG-axis (e.g., LH, SHBG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone) have also failed to respond to DAA ( Melville et al., 2015 ; Willoughby & Leutholtz
Jay R. Ebert, Kate E. Webster, Peter K. Edwards, Brendan K. Joss, Peter D’Alessandro, Greg Janes and Peter Annear
. The percentage of respondents selecting each response within the 14 survey questions was tabulated. Results Of the 85 AKS members that were provided the online survey link, 73 (86%) completed and submitted the questionnaire. The results of the survey based on responder status are provided in Table 1
Shirley M. Bluethmann, Wayne Foo, Renate M. Winkels, Scherezade K. Mama and Kathryn H. Schmitz
cervical) cancer diagnosis between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016, and (c) were able to read, speak, and write in English (and respond to mailed surveys). We randomly sampled 2,500 adult cancer survivors from 28 Central Pennsylvania counties served by the Penn State Cancer Institute, 500 from each