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Antje Hill, Linda Schücker, Norbert Hagemann and Bernd Strauß

). Although all outcome variables can be regarded as important, some of them (e.g., speed or perceived exertion) can be easily influenced by participants’ motivation to perform well on the task making it necessary to control for other influences (e.g., motivation). Therefore, running economy is a favorable

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Robert N. Marshall, David J. Paterson and Paul Glendining

Approximately 25 runners were filmed at the 24.9- and 41.0-km points in the 1987 Everest Marathon. Their finishing times ranged from 4:53:10 to 7:14:37. Leg length, step lengths, step frequencies, knee angles at impact, and ankle-to-hip angles at impact were determined for each runner who appeared in both films (N = 20). The slopes at the two filming sites were −21.8% and −26.8%, considerably steeper gradients than have previously been studied. When compared to data from other downhill running studies at −10% gradient, these athletes had slightly slower speeds, shorter step lengths, straighter legs on impact, and greater minimum knee angles during stance. The results suggest that the runners used a variety of techniques to minimize the effects of ground impact while still allowing for the competitive aspect of the race, considerable variation in footing and terrain, and personal safety.

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Peter J. Whalley, Chey G. Dearing and Carl D. Paton

effects. 14 To our knowledge, there is currently no published research comparing the effects of different caffeine delivery forms on exercise performance. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the ergogenic effects of different forms of caffeine supplementation on 5-km running

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Yumeng Li, Rumit S. Kakar, Marika A. Walker, Yang-Chieh Fu, Timothy S. Oswald, Cathleen N. Brown and Kathy J. Simpson

axial rotation. 8 For treadmill running, compared to healthy controls, Kakar and colleagues found that SF-AIS individuals demonstrated less lateral flexion of the upper trunk 9 and reduced ankle plantar flexion displacement, though a greater hip flexion angle during the stance phase. 11 SF

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Duncan Simpson, Phillip G. Post, Greg Young and Peter R. Jensen

Ultramarathon (UM) running is a rapidly growing sport throughout the world, yet to date it has received little attention in sport psychology literature. To obtain further insight into this sport, the current study examined the training and competition experiences of UM runners. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with 26 participants ranging in age from 32 to 67 years (M = 44.1 yrs, SD = 8.1). Qualitative analysis of the interview data identified meaning units, which were grouped into major themes. A final thematic structure revealed five major themes that characterized the participant’s experience of UM running: preparation and strategy, management, discovery, personal achievement, and community. Taken together, the present results extend previous research on UM running and provide a number of suggestions for sport psychology consultants working with UM runners.

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Jean-Francois Esculier, Laurent J. Bouyer and Jean-Sébastien Roy


Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is one of the most frequent running-related injuries. However, few interventions taking into consideration the specificity of running have been shown to be effective in runners with PFP.


To evaluate the effects of a multimodal rehabilitation program including lower-limb-strengthening/motor-control exercises, advice on running biomechanics, and symptoms management on symptoms, strength, and ground-reaction forces in runners with PFP.


Pre- to post- quasi-experimental.


Gait-analysis laboratory and private physical therapy clinic.


21 runners with PFP (34.1 ± 6.0 y old, symptoms duration 38.1 ± 45.5 mo).


An 8-wk multimodal rehabilitation program including lower-limb- and core-strengthening and motor-control exercises, as well as advice on running gait and symptoms management.

Main Outcome Measures:

The Activities of Daily Living Scale of the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS-ADLS) questionnaire and visual analog scales for usual pain (VAS-U), worst pain (VAS-W), and pain during running (VAS-R) were used to assess changes in symptoms and function. Vertical ground-reaction forces (VGRF) during running and lower-limb isometric strength were also measured.


Statistically and clinically significant improvements (P < .001) were reported on KOS-ADLS (+17.8 pts), VAS-U (−19.2 pts), VAS-W (−28.7 pts), and VAS-R (−32.2 pts) after the intervention. No significant changes in isometric strength were observed. The instantaneous vertical loading rate was decreased after the intervention (P = .002), and this reduction was correlated with changes in KOS-ADLS scores (P = .028).


This multimodal intervention was successful in reducing pain and improving function of runners with PFP. However, no significant changes in lower-limb strength were observed. It appears that changes in VGRF combined with appropriate training advice could explain the clinical outcomes.

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Edward J. Quigley and James G. Richards

This study investigated the mechanical effects that cycling has on running style which may explain the discomfort associated with the transition from cycling to running. The joint angles, angular velocities, reaction forces, and reaction moments of the left and right hip, knee, and ankle joints as well as stance time, flight time, stride length, and maximum vertical displacement of the center of gravity were measured using high-speed video and ground reaction force data. Data were collected from 11 competitive biathletes and triathletes. Each subject's running mechanics were determined from 10 trials for each of three conditions: (a) unfatigued, (b) immediately following 30 min of running, and (c) immediately following 30 min of bicycling. The results indicate that a person's running mechanics, as described by the variables above, are virtually unchanged between each of the three conditions. Therefore, awkwardness of the bicycle-to-run transition may not be related to a change in running mechanics.

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Diogo V. Leal, Lee Taylor and John Hough

cyclists, its application within other athletes (eg, runners) is evidently lacking. Given a 30-minute running protocol at 80% of maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ) has been reported to elevate plasma cortisol by ∼20%, 10 and a running test to exhaustion at 100% ventilatory threshold increased plasma

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John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore and Gregory Whyte

ergogenic action of 2- and 4-mg inhaled terbutaline on exercise performance during a 3-km running time trial and to measure urinary thresholds of terbutaline postexercise performance. Methods Following ethical approval from the Liverpool John Moores University Research Ethics Committee (Ethics No. P11SPS044

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Guillaume P. Ducrocq, Thomas J. Hureau, Olivier Meste and Grégory M. Blain

Exercise performance of many sport disciplines (eg, team sports, racquet sports, short and mid-distance running) requires both high endurance and muscle power output capabilities. 1 , 2 Usually, these specific physical capabilities are developed separately, but the increasing number of