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John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore and Gregory Whyte

ergogenic action of 2- and 4-mg inhaled terbutaline on exercise performance during a 3-km running time trial and to measure urinary thresholds of terbutaline postexercise performance. Methods Following ethical approval from the Liverpool John Moores University Research Ethics Committee (Ethics No. P11SPS044

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Guillaume P. Ducrocq, Thomas J. Hureau, Olivier Meste and Grégory M. Blain

Exercise performance of many sport disciplines (eg, team sports, racquet sports, short and mid-distance running) requires both high endurance and muscle power output capabilities. 1 , 2 Usually, these specific physical capabilities are developed separately, but the increasing number of

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Hugh Trenchard, Andrew Renfree and Derek M. Peters

Purpose:

Drafting in cycling influences collective behavior of pelotons. Although evidence for collective behavior in competitive running events exists, it is not clear if this results from energetic savings conferred by drafting. This study modeled the effects of drafting on behavior in elite 10,000-m runners.

Methods:

Using performance data from a men’s elite 10,000-m track running event, computer simulations were constructed using Netlogo 5.1 to test the effects of 3 different drafting quantities on collective behavior: no drafting, drafting to 3 m behind with up to ~8% energy savings (a realistic running draft), and drafting up to 3 m behind with up to 38% energy savings (a realistic cycling draft). Three measures of collective behavior were analyzed in each condition: mean speed, mean group stretch (distance between first- and last-placed runner), and runner-convergence ratio (RCR), which represents the degree of drafting benefit obtained by the follower in a pair of coupled runners.

Results:

Mean speeds were 6.32 ± 0.28, 5.57 ± 0.18, and 5.51 ± 0.13 m/s in the cycling-draft, runner-draft, and no-draft conditions, respectively (all P < .001). RCR was lower in the cycling-draft condition but did not differ between the other 2. Mean stretch did not differ between conditions.

Conclusions:

Collective behaviors observed in running events cannot be fully explained through energetic savings conferred by realistic drafting benefits. They may therefore result from other, possibly psychological, processes. The benefits or otherwise of engaging in such behavior are as yet unclear.

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Dietmar Wallner, Helmut Simi, Gerhard Tschakert and Peter Hofmann

Purpose:

To analyze the acute physiological response to aerobic short-interval training (AESIT) at various high-intensity running speeds. A minor anaerobic glycolytic energy supply was aimed to mimic the characteristics of slow continuous runs.

Methods:

Eight trained male runners (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] 55.5 ± 3.3 mL · kg−1 · min−1) performed an incremental treadmill exercise test (increments: 0.75 km · h−1 · min−1). Two lactate turn points (LTP1, LTP2) were determined. Subsequently, 3 randomly assigned AESIT sessions with high-intensity running-speed intervals were performed at speeds close to the speed (v) at VO2max (vVO2max) to create mean intensities of 50%, 55%, and 60% of vLTP1. AESIT sessions lasted 30 min and consisted of 10-s work phases, alternated by 20-s passive recovery phases.

Results:

To produce mean velocities of 50%, 55%, and 60% of vLTP1, running speeds were calculated as 18.6 ± 0.7 km/h (93.4% vVO2max), 20.2 ± 0.6 km/h (101.9% vVO2max), and 22.3 ± 0.7 km/h (111.0% vVO2max), which gave a mean blood lactate concentration (La) of 1.09 ± 0.31 mmol/L, 1.57 ± 0.52 mmol/L, and 2.09 ± 0.99 mmol/L, respectively. La at 50% of vLTP1 was not significantly different from La at vLTP1 (P = .8894). Mean VO2 was found at 54.0%, 58.5%, and 64.0% of VO2max, while at the end of the sessions VO2 rose to 71.1%, 80.4%, and 85.6% of VO2max, respectively.

Conclusion:

The results showed that AESIT with 10-s work phases alternating with 20 s of passive rest and a running speed close to vVO2max gave a systemic aerobic metabolic profile similar to slow continuous runs.

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Marc Sim, Brian Dawson, Grant Landers, Dorine W. Swinkels, Harold Tjalsma, Debbie Trinder and Peter Peeling

The effect of exercise modality and intensity on Interleukin-6 (IL-6), iron status, and hepcidin levels was investigated. Ten trained male triathletes performed 4 exercise trials including low-intensity continuous running (L-R), low-intensity continuous cycling (L-C), high-intensity interval running (H-R), and high-intensity interval cycling (H-C). Both L-R and L-C consisted of 40 min continuous exercise performed at 65% of peak running velocity (vVO2peak) and cycling power output (pVO2peak), while H-R and H-C consisted of 8 × 3-min intervals performed at 85% vVO2peak and pVO2peak. Venous blood samples were drawn pre-, post-, and 3 hr postexercise. Significant increases in postexercise IL-6 were seen within each trial (p < .05) and were significantly greater in H-R than L-R (p < .05). Hepcidin levels were significantly elevated at 3 hr postexercise within each trial (p < .05). Serum iron levels were significantly elevated (p < .05) immediately postexercise in all trials except L-C. These results suggest that, regardless of exercise mode or intensity, postexercise increases in IL-6 may be expected, likely influencing a subsequent elevation in hepcidin. Regardless, the lack of change in postexercise serum iron levels in L-C may indicate that reduced hemolysis occurs during weight-supported, low-intensity activity.

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Alex Stacoff, Xaver Kaelin, Edgar Stuessi and Bernhard Segesser

In the research of running shoes, excessive pronation is often related to various running injuries. Anatomically, pronation is a movement that occurs in more than one joint. Previous investigations that evaluated the pronation in running studied the movements of the lower leg and the rearfoot only. However, pronation could also be influenced by the movement of the forefoot and therefore depend on the torsional stiffness of the foot and of the shoe sole. This study investigated the relationship between the torsion and the pronation in running with a rearfoot touchdown and with a forefoot touchdown. The results show that, compared to running barefoot, running with a shoe decreases torsion and thereby increases pronation significantly (p < 0.01) for the forefoot and rearfoot touchdown conditions. Thus the reduction of torsional movement due to stiff shoe soles could well be a reason for running injuries caused by excessive pronation. It is concluded that modern running shoes could be designed to allow a certain torsional movement of the foot.

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Jeffery J. Summers, Victoria J. Machin and Gregory I. Sargent

This study was designed to examine some of the psychosocial factors underlying the recent marathon boom. A survey of 459 marathoners varying in age, sex, ability, and experience was conducted to assess their reasons for running a marathon, the outcomes derived, and their experiences during a marathon. Information was also sought regarding the psychological aspects of running in general, particularly the concept of addiction to running. Measures of addiction to running produced a consistent pattern of sex differences, with females evidencing higher levels of addiction than males. With respect to reasons for running a marathon and perceived outcomes, some interesting trends were evident as a function of age. It was suggested that the attraction of the marathon to people of all ages and abilities may lie partly in its unique ability to satisfy a wide range of needs, both extrinsic and intrinsic.

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Alex V. Rowlands, John M. Schuna Jr., Victoria H. Stiles and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

Previous research has reported peak vertical acceleration and peak loading rate thresholds beneficial to bone mineral density (BMD). Such thresholds are difficult to translate into meaningful recommendations for physical activity. Cadence (steps/min) is a more readily interpretable measure of ambulatory activity.

Objective:

To examine relationships between cadence, peak vertical acceleration and peak loading rate during ambulation and identify the cadence associated with previously reported bone-beneficial thresholds for peak vertical acceleration (4.9 g) and peak loading rate (43 BW/s).

Methods:

Ten participants completed 8 trials each of: slow walking, brisk walking, slow running, and fast running. Acceleration data were captured using a GT3×+ accelerometer worn at the hip. Peak loading rate was collected via a force plate.

Results:

Strong relationships were identified between cadence and peak vertical acceleration (r = .96, P < .05) and peak loading rate (r = .98, P < .05). Regression analyses indicated cadences of 157 ± 12 steps/min (2.6 ± 0.2 steps/s) and 122 ± 10 steps/min (2.0 ± 0.2 steps/s) corresponded with the 4.9 g peak vertical acceleration and 43 BW/s peak loading rate thresholds, respectively.

Conclusions:

Cadences ≥ 2.0 to 2.6 steps/s equate to acceleration and loading rate thresholds related to bone health. Further research is needed to investigate whether the frequency of daily occurrences of this cadence is associated with BMD.

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Konstantinos Tsintzas, Raymond Liu, Clyde Williams, Ian Campbell and George Gaitanos

Seven experienced endurance runners completed a 30-km road race on two occasions separated by 10 days. On each occasion the subjects consumed 250 ml of either a 5% carbohydrate (CHO) solution or nonflavored tap water (W) immediately prior to the start of the race, and 150 ml of the assigned fluid every 5 km thereafter. Performance time for the CHO trial was faster compared with the time recorded for the W trial (128.3 ± 19.9 min vs. 131.2 ± 18.7 min [p<0.01] respectively). Running speed was maintained throughout the race in the CHO trial, whereas a decrease in the running speed occurred after 25 km (p<0.05) in the W trial. No difference was found between the two trials in blood glucose concentration, plasma electrolyte concentrations, body weight loss, change in plasma volume, and rating of perceived exertion. Blood lactate concentration was higher at 25 km during the CHO trial compared with the W trial (p<0.01), but plasma FFA and glycerol concentrations were lower at 30 km during the CHO trial than during the W trial (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that performance time for a 30-km road race is improved after ingesting a 5% CHO solution.

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Joanne L. Fallowfield, Clyde Williams and Rabindar Singh

Recovery from prolonged exercise involves both rehydration and replenishment of endogenous carbohydrate stores. The present study examined the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) solution following prolonged running, on exercise capacity 4 hr later. Twelve men and 4 women were divided into two matched groups, which were randomly assigned to either a control (P) or a carbohydrate (CHO) condition. Both groups ran at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on a level treadmill for 90 min or until volitional fatigue (R,), and they ran at the same %VO2max to exhaustion 4 hr later to assess endurance capacity (R2). The CHO group ingested a 6.9% CE solution providing 1.0 g CHO · kg body weight−1 immediately post-R, and again 2 hr later. The P group ingested equal volumes of a placebo solution. Run times (mean ± SEM) for Rj did not differ between the groups (P 86.3 ± 3.8 min; CHO 87.5 ± 2.5 min). The CHO group ran 22.2 (±3.5) min longer than the P group during R2 (P 39.8 ± 6.1 min; CHO 62.0 ± 6.2 min) (p < .05). Thus, ingesting a 6.9% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage following prolonged, constant-pace running improves endurance capacity 4 hr later.