Many learning disabled students demonstrate psychological/behavioral and perceptual motor characteristics that affect physical education placement and programming. Among the characteristics exhibited by these students are hyperactivity, disorders of attention, impulsivity, poor self-concept, social imperception, delay in social play development, and deficiencies in body equilibrium, visual motor control, bilateral coordination, repetitive finger movements, and fine motor coordination. Activities found to benefit learning disabled students are jogging, relaxation, highly structured teacher-directed routines, and noncompetitive games, all of which must be carefully sequenced. Testing must be done to determine the type and extent of the learning disabled students’ problems, and activities must be selected on the basis of the results of such tests.
Claudine Sherrill and Jean L. Pyfer
William B. Karper and Thomas J. Martinek
This paper describes physical education research completed in a university-based laboratory over a 2-year period. The purpose of various laboratory projects was to study the complexities associated when integrating handicapped with nonhandicapped children. All of the work was focused on children in the kindgerten through third grades. Variables studied were motor performance, self-concept, teacher expectations, student effort (how hard a student tried during class), age, and social climates (competitive and noncompetitive atmospheres). Implications for teachers of physical education are drawn from investigation results.
Glen E. Van Andel and David R. Austin
Empirical evidence has shown a positive relationship between physical training and selected mental health variables. In nonclinical studies the most significant effects of physical exercise have been on self-concept and body image. Two affective variables, depression and anxiety, also seem to be influenced by physical activity but to a lesser degree in this population than with clinical populations. Certain clinical populations appear to benefit cognitively and socially from exercise even though the activity may not be aerobically stressful. Theories that attempt to explain the relationship between fitness and mental health are discussed.
Barbara Teetor Waite, Bruce Gansneder and Robert J. Robert
This study represents a first step in the development and validation of a measure of sport-specific self-acceptance. Phase 1 of this study involved instrument design and pilot testing. In Phase 2 a random sample of Division I collegiate athletes (N=131) were asked to complete the Self-Acceptance Scale for Athletes (SASA) as well as measures of general self-acceptance self-esteem, stability of self-concept, and sport-specific self-description (i.e., perceived competence/adequacy). Test-retest coefficients ranged from 62 to .75 and alpha coefficients ranged from .58 to .80. Factor analysis suggests two factors, independence of self-regard and self-accepting self-regard representing the two dimensions of self-acceptance measured in the SASA. Scores on the SASA have moderate correlations with general self-acceptance, self-esteem, and stability of self-concept. A significantly stronger relationship between self-esteem and perceived competence/adequacy than between self-acceptance and perceived competence/adequacy suggests that the SASA is able to discriminate between these closely related constructs
Sarah Draugelis, Jeffrey Martin and Alex Garn
Although many researchers have examined ill-being (e.g., injury and illness) in dancers, few researchers have examined well-being. In the current study, dancer’s perceptions of the dance motivational climate, dance performance anxiety, dance self-concept, and their relationships to dance well-being were examined. A total of 182 university dance students from five universities completed surveys and a series of multiregression analyses were undertaken to predict well-being. Both dance self-concept and perceptions of a task climate were moderately related to well-being and contributed significantly to elements of well-being: vigor, enthusiasm, confidence, and dedication. An ego climate was unrelated to any of the four dimensions of well-being. Substantial variance was predicted in the various elements of engagement, ranging from 15% to 55%. In particular, two significant interactions indicated that a task climate may have protective effects against anxiety in terms of reducing the detrimental influence that anxiety may have on two forms of well-being: confidence and dedication.
Inés Tomás, Herbert W. Marsh, Vicente González-Romá, Víctor Valls and Benjamin Nagengast
Test of measurement invariance across translated versions of questionnaires is a critical prerequisite to comparing scores on the different versions. In this study, we used exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative approach to evaluate the measurement invariance of the Spanish version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). The two versions were administered to large samples of Australian and Spanish adolescents. First, we compared the CFA and ESEM approaches and showed that ESEM fitted the data much better and resulted in substantially more differentiated factors. We then tested measurement invariance with a 13-model ESEM taxonomy. Results justified using the Spanish version of the PSDQ to carry out cross-cultural comparisons in sport and exercise psychology research. Overall, the study can stimulate research on physical self-concept across countries and foster better cross-cultural comparisons.
Deborah R. Shapiro and Dale A. Ulrich
This study examined the relationship between components of Eccles’ (Eccles et al., 1983) expectancy-value model and perceptions of physical competence of children with and without learning disabilities (LD) across three physical activity contexts (physical education class, outdoor school recess, and at home). Participants, 60 children with and without LD between 10 and 13 years, completed the Modified Pictorial Scale of Perceived Physical Competence (Ulrich & Collier, 1990) and an expectancy-value questionnaire measuring perceived importance, usefulness, enjoyment, and gender orientation of selected motor skills. Gender differences in perceptions of physical competence were found in recess and home settings. No significant group differences were observed in perceptions of physical competence. Expectancy-value subscales contributed differently to understanding competence judgments of boys and girls across context. Results are discussed with implications for improving self-concept and expectancy-value among girls toward sport and physical activity.
Florence Guérin, Herbert W. Marsh and Jean-Pierre Famose
Two studies tested the generalizability of support for within- and between-construct validity based on responses to a French translation of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) by high school students. The PSDQ is a multidimensional physical self-concept instrument designed to measure 11 components: health, coordination, physical activity, body fat, sports competence, global physical, appearance, strength, flexibility, endurance, and esteem. In the first study (N = 752), preliminary reliability analysis revealed strong internal consistency and overall stability. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for structural equivalence with the original instrument. In the second study (N = 288), PSDQ factors were related to 13 external criteria of physical fitness; each was predicted a priori to be most highly correlated with one of the PSDQ scales. Bivariate correlations and CFA models supported both the convergent and discriminant validity of the PSDQ responses. These overall results demonstrated good support for the generalizability of the PSDQ with French adolescents.
Herbert W. Marsh
The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) is a multidimensional physical self-concept instrument with 11 scales: Strength, Body Fat, Activity, Endurance/Fitness, Sports Competence, Coordination, Health, Appearance, Flexibility, Global Physical, and Global Esteem. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the construct validity of PSDQ responses in relation to 23 external criteria, including measures of body composition, physical activity, endurance, strength, and flexibility for 192 (113 boys and 79 girls) high school students. Each external validity criterion was predicted a priori to be most highly correlated with one of the PSDQ scales. In support of the convergent validity of the PSDQ responses, every predicted correlation was statistically significant. In support of the discriminant validity of the PSDQ responses, most predicted correlations were larger than other correlations involving the same criterion. These results support the construct validity of PSDQ responses in relation to external criteria and their potential usefulness in a wide variety of sports and exercise settings.
Athanasios Papaioannou, Herbert W. Marsh and Yannis Theodorakis
Motivational climate is inherently a group-level construct so that longitudinal, multilevel designs are needed to evaluate its effects on subsequent outcomes. Based on a large sample of physical education classes (2,786 students, 200 classes, 67 teachers), we evaluated the effects of classroom motivational climate (task-involving and ego-involving) and individual goal orientations (task and ego) on individual students’ outcomes (intrinsic motivation, attitudes, physical self-concept, and exercise intentions) collected early (T1) and late (T2) in the school year. Using a multilevel approach, we found significant class-average differences in motivational climate at T1 that had positive effects on T2 outcomes after controlling T1 outcomes. Although there was no support for a “compatibility hypothesis” (e.g., that task oriented students were more benefited by task-involving motivation climates), the stability of goal orientations was undermined by incompatible climates.