Although qualitative research approaches such as ethnography have been applied to the field of sport (e.g., Bricknell, 2001; Hughson and Hallinan, 2001) Sparkes (2003) has suggested that it was not until the late 1990s that sport researchers began to embrace ethnographic frameworks underpinned by critical and postmodern theories. As such, the value of these research designs has not been fully realized. The benefit for sport management researchers in applying critical and postmodern thought to ethnographic approaches is that it sharpens their critical consciousness. This article therefore develops an argument for applying critical and postmodern thought to ethnographic approaches to sport management research. In doing this we (a) provide a brief historical sketch of social science research paradigms; (b) outline the benefits of applying critical and postmodern thought to sport management ethnographic research; (c) present examples of current sport and sport management ethnographic research that applies critical and postmodern frameworks; and (d) provide insight into the concerns that sport management scholars should consider when applying ethnographic research designs that embrace the tenets of postmodernism. Through this discussion we conclude that, although ethnographic approaches inspired by critical and postmodern thought are not the panacea to solve all research problems, if applied correctly they can only further enhance out knowledge of the research issue under investigation.
James Skinner and Allan Edwards
Athena Yiamouyiannis, Glenna G. Bower, Joanne Williams, Dina Gentile and Heather Alderman
Accreditation and accountability in sport management education are necessary to ensure academic rigor and can serve as vehicles by which sport management educators examine and enhance the academic quality of their programs. This paper addresses this topic first with a discussion of the need for accreditation and a review of the accrediting agencies and other entities involved (CHEA, USDE, regional and specialized accrediting agencies, and state involvement). Next is a brief overview of COSMA’s accreditation process, and then a focus on direct learning outcomes and assessment tools. Becoming more familiar with the value and purpose of accreditation in general, as well as the specifics of the COSMA accreditation process as it relates to the common professional components (CPCs) and direct learning outcome assessments, can help with obtaining faculty commitment to the accreditation process and with continued enhancement of the academic quality of sport management programs.
Daniel F. Mahony, Michael Mondello, Mary A. Hums and Michael Judd
The growth of sport management has led to concerns about the quantity and quality of candidates for faculty positions. In addition to trying to recruit recent doctoral graduates, many programs focus on recruiting established faculty members. This study examines factors affecting the willingness of sport management faculty to accept new positions, and the likelihood of leaving their current positions. While the likelihood of leaving was not high, objective factors such as salary and location were important to those willing to take a new position. Subjective factors such as fit within the program and quality of faculty in the program were also important, whereas several factors were less important (e.g., recruiter description, recruiter approach, and leadership opportunities). Results confirm that attracting faculty in sport management is challenging and universities must consider a combination of strategies to attract them.
Dennie R. Kelley, Patricia A. Beitel, Joy T. DeSensi and Mary Dale Blanton
The purpose of this paper is to present undergraduate and graduate sport management curricular models which provide a perspective that higher education sport management professionals can use to solve curricular problems described in the literature and to implement the NASPE/NASSM guidelines. The five sport management concentrations, which have similar objectives and services but occur in different settings or serve different clientele, include (a) Sport for Leisure/Recreation, (b) Sport and Athletics, (c) Sport Merchandising, (d) Hostelries/Travel, and (e) Recreation Agencies. The models (a) differentiate purposes, content, and entry-level positions for each degree level; (b) provide evidence for which concentrations need to be part of each curriculum; (c) define a professional core; (d) describe the concentration specialization requirements; (e) differentiate the culminating experiences for each degree; and (f) provide the distinctive characteristics of undergraduate and graduate programs.
Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, Benoit Séguin and Ornella Nzindukiyimana
This work critically assesses the history and current state of social media scholarship in sport management research. Methodologically, the study is based on a comprehensive census review of the current body of literature in the area of social media. The review identifies 123 social media articles in sport management research that were mined from a cross-disciplinary examination of 29 scholarly journals from January 2008 (earliest found) to June 2014. The work identifies the topic areas, the platforms, the theories, and the research methods that have received the (most/least) attention of the social media research community, and provides suggestions for future research.
Carla A. Costa
Ongoing debates about appropriate foci and growth of sport management research, application, theory, and training are evidence of the field’s growing pains. These growing pains also occur in other fields in which they function as a means to expand and elaborate the paradigms through which fields of inquiry grow and mature. In this study, a panel of 17 leading sport management scholars from around the globe responded to three iterations of a Delphi questionnaire probing their views about the status and future of the field. Panelists agreed that stronger research, additional cross-disciplinary research, a stronger link between theory and practice, enhanced infrastructure, and improved doctoral training are desirable objectives. They disagreed, however, about the appropriate academic home for sport management, what constitutes quality research, the roles of qualitative vs. quantitative research, and the relative value of basic vs. applied research. The results show that by actively engaging in debates over the issues identified in this study, sport management scholars can explore new ways of perceiving, thinking, and valuing that could enable proficient and constructive development of the field.
This paper outlines the sport management curricula adopted by the Rand Afrikaans University in South Africa. The literature that provided the framework and the local conditions that influenced the curriculum design are described. The differences between the curriculum models generally found in North America and the present model are noted.
Cole G. Armstrong, Theodore M. Butryn, Vernon L. Andrews and Matthew A. Masucci
by event organizers), and although all have unique teaching foci and research interests, the authors share a commitment to providing their university students with timely and critical insights related to the intersections of social issues and sport management/sport studies. To this end, while the
Sally R. Ross and Janet B. Parks
This study examined 115 undergraduate sport management students’ attitudes toward women’s roles in the workplace and three variables that might explain those attitudes: perspective taking, gender self-esteem, and attitudes toward sexist language. The participants, 88 men and 27 women, were enrolled in one midsize university in the Midwestern United States. On average, the participants were ambivalent about women’s roles. Women were significantly more supportive of women’s roles than were men (p < .001). Taken together, the ability to take the perspective of others and attitudes toward sexist language uniquely explained 16% of the variance in men’s attitudes toward women. Neither perspective taking, nor gender self-esteem, nor attitudes toward sexist language correlated significantly with the women’s attitudes toward women. Women’s gender self-esteem was inversely related to their attitudes toward women. Based on the results, suggestions for recruitment, curriculum development, and classroom strategies for enhancing sport management students’ attitudes toward women are presented.
Joy T. DeSensi, Dennie R. Kelley, Mary Dale Blanton and Patricia A. Beitel
This study specifically determined (a) employer expectations of sport managers, (b) employer evaluation of educational sport management programs and curricula, (c) college/university faculty/student evaluation of components of existing sport management programs, and (d) the interrelationships among these groups. The results of this study identified the commonalities within and between business/agency groups and college/university faculty and students. Results of the business/agency needs assessment indicated major differences across settings for academic/experiential requirements, employment needs, workload distributions, and job evaluation criteria. Evaluation of the commonalities/ differences provide indication for curricular planning. Also, differences were apparent between the curricular evaluations of the college/university faculty and business/agency personnel, suggesting the need to evaluate curricular content and determine where changes should/should not be made. There is support for the theoretical conjecture that one concentration will not meet the needs of personnel for all business/agency settings.