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Meghan Schreck, Robert Althoff, Meike Bartels, Eco de Geus, Jeremy Sibold, Christine Giummo, David Rubin and James Hudziak

Few studies have explored the relation between withdrawn behavior (WB) and exercise and screen time. The current study used exploratory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of leisure-time exercise behavior (LTEB) and screentime sedentary behavior (STSB) in a clinical sample of youth. Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the relations between WB and LTEB and STSB, conditional on gender. WB was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist, and LTEB and STSB were measured using the Vermont Health Behavior Questionnaire. LTEB and STSB emerged as two separate factors. Gender moderated the structure of STSB only. For boys and girls, WB was inversely related to LTEB but not significantly related to STSB. LTEB and STSB are best represented as distinct, uncorrelated constructs. In addition, withdrawn youth may be at risk for poor health outcomes due to lower rates of LTEB. Mental health clinicians, sports psychologists, and related providers may be uniquely qualified to enhance motivation for sports participation in withdrawn youth.

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Jen D. Wong, Julie S. Son, Stephanie T. West, Jill J. Naar and Toni Liechty

’s participation in competitive softball in late adulthood. By better identifying the challenges and opportunities that older women face in competitive team sports participation, we have the opportunity to better determine the needs of female athletes aging in place at the local community level. According to Baker

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Silvia A. González, Olga L. Sarmiento, Daniel D. Cohen, Diana M. Camargo, Jorge E. Correa, Diana C. Páez and Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is central to the global agenda for the prevention on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Although 80% of NCDs occur in low-to-middle-income countries, the evidence on PA comes mainly from high-income countries. In this context, the report card for Colombia is an advocacy tool to help in the translation of evidence into concrete actions. The aims of this paper were two-fold: to present the methodology used to develop the first Report Card on Physical Activity in Colombian Children and Youth and to summarize the results.

Methods:

Twelve indicators of PA were graded using numerical grades (5, highest, to 1, lowest) based on data from national surveys and policy documents.

Results:

National policy and obesity indicators were graded “4,” while departmental policy and overweight indicators were graded “3.” Overall PA levels, sports participation, sedentary behaviors and nongovernment initiatives were graded “2,” and school influence was graded “1.” Active transportation, active play, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and family and community influence received an incomplete.

Conclusion:

PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high in Colombian children and youth. Although the prevalence of obesity in Colombia is lower compared with other Latin American countries, it is increasing. A rich legal framework and availability of institutional arrangements provide unique opportunities to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice that need to be evaluated.

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Catherine Draper, Susan Basset, Anniza de Villiers, Estelle V. Lambert and the HAKSA Writing Group

Background:

There is current concern for the health and well-being of children and youth in South Africa, including habits of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior. The 2014 Healthy Active Kids South Africa Report Card evaluates the current activity status of children and youth.

Methods:

The Research Working Group was comprised of 23 experts in physical education, nutrition, sport science, public health and journalism. The search was based on a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature (previous 5 years), dissertations, and nonpeer-reviewed reports (‘gray’ literature) dealing with the PA and nutritional status of South African children and youth 6−18 years of age. Key indicators were identified and data extracted. Grades for each indicator were discussed and assigned.

Results:

Overall PA levels received a D grade, as roughly 50% or more of children and youth were not meeting recommended levels. Organized sports participation fared better with a C, and government policies were promising, receiving a B. Screen time and sedentary behavior were a major concern and received a grade of F. Under- and over-weight were highlighted, but overweight is on the rise and this indicator was assigned a D grade. Most of the other indicators in South Africa remained the same or became worse so that grades declined from C- to D. In particular, sedentary behavior, soft-drink and fast food consumption, and an ineffectual regulatory environment to control advertising to children were a concern. There is need to engage parents and communities for advocacy and social mobilization.

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Sarah A. Amin, Paula J. Duquesnay, Catherine M. Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D. Economos and Jennifer M. Sacheck

sports/organized activities to a mere 27% ( 36 ). Studies suggest that the benefits of sports participation transcend physical benefits and correspond with social and psychological benefits, including important self-perceptions, such as PAC ( 9 ). These effects may be even more critical for underserved

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Jonathan Miller, Mark Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa Laska, Toben Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

associated with physical activity, 23 screen time has been negatively associated with physical activity, 6 , 7 sports participation has been positively associated with physical activity, 24 substance use has been negatively associated with physical activity, 12 , 23 depression has been negatively

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Karla I. Galaviz, Gabriela Argumedo Garcia, Alejandro Gaytán-González, Inés González-Casanova, Martín Francisco González Villalobos, Alejandra Jáuregui, Edtna Jáuregui Ulloa, Catalina Medina, Yoali Selene Pacheco Miranda, Marcela Pérez Rodríguez, Eugen Resendiz, Ricardo Alejandro Retano Pelayo, María del Pilar Rodríguez Martínez and Juan Ricardo López y Taylor

$202 million Mexican pesos in 2014). 5 Figure 1 —Mexico’s 2018 Report Card cover. Only 7 out of 10 indicators were graded. Grades indicate that Mexican children and youth are not meeting the recommendations for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Sports participation and active transportation

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Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R. Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres and Romulo Araújo Fernandes

Sports participation has been considered as an important manifestation of physical activity in adolescence, and consequently, it can be regarded as an effective strategy to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases throughout life, which include osteoporosis ( 27 , 34 ). Being physically

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Kayla M. Baker, Sean Healy, David J. Rice and Jeanette M. Garcia

analysis of variance was conducted to compare differences in behaviors (TV, MVPA, and sports participation), weight loss behaviors (exercising to lose weight, restricting calories to lose weight, perceived body image, and weighing oneself), social factors (number of friends and victim of bullying), and

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Chelsea L. Kracht, Susan B. Sisson, Emily Hill Guseman, Laura Hubbs-Tait, Sandra H. Arnold, Jennifer Graef and Allen Knehans

age, peers become a predominant influence on PA and can facilitate movement through mentoring ( 48 ) and inspiring sports participation ( 42 ). Siblings serve a dual family and peer influence, as they reflect family habits ( 31 ) and can facilitate peer-level PA ( 32 ). Unlike peers, however, siblings