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Kate R. Pfile, Phillip A. Gribble, Gretchen E. Buskirk, Sara M. Meserth and Brian G. Pietrosimone


Epidemiological data demonstrate the need for lower-extremity injury-prevention training. Neuromuscularcontrol (NMC) programs are immediately effective at minimizing lower-extremity injury risk and improving sport-related performance measures. Research investigating lasting effects after an injury-prevention program is limited.


To determine whether dynamic balance, landing mechanics, and hamstring and quadriceps strength could be improved after a 6-wk NMC intervention and maintained for a season.


Prospective case series.


Controlled laboratory.


11 Division I women’s basketball players (age 19.40 ± 1.35 y, height 178.05 ± 7.52 cm, mass 72.86 ± 10.70 kg).


Subjects underwent testing 3 times, completing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), and isometric strength testing for the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. Pretest and posttest 1 occurred immediately before and after the intervention, respectively, and posttest 2 at the end of the competitive season, 9 mo after posttest 1. Subjects participated in eighteen 30-min plyometric and NMC-training sessions over a 6-wk period.

Main Outcome Measures:

The normalized SEBT composite score, normalized peak isometric hamstrings:quadriceps (H:Q) ratio, and the LESS total score.


The mean composite reach significantly improved over time (F 2,10 = 6.96, P = .005) where both posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest (70.41% ± 4.08%) (posttest 1 73.48% ± 4.19%, t 10 = –3.11, P = .011) and posttest 2 (74.2% ± 4.77%, t 10 = –3.78, P = .004). LESS scores significantly improved over time (F 2,10 = 6.29, P = .009). The pretest LESS score (7.30 ± 3.40) was higher than posttest 1 (4.9 ± 1.20, t 10 = 2.71, P = .024) and posttest 2 (5.44 ± 1.83, t 10 = 2.58, P = .030). There were no statistically significant differences (P > .05) over time for the H:Q ratio when averaging both legs (F 2,10 = 0.83, P = .45).


A 6-wk NMC program improved landing mechanics and dynamic balance over a 9-mo period in women’s basketball players. NMC adaptations can be retained without an in-season maintenance program.

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Kellie C. Huxel Bliven and Kelsey J. Picha

movers, force couples, and compensatory muscles are considered simultaneously and collectively. This shift toward a more comprehensive approach, in both muscle activation and strength testing, provides a more detailed and functional understanding of the shoulder. It is well established that supraspinatus

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Benjamin R. Wilson, Kaley E. Robertson, Jeremy M. Burnham, Michael C. Yonz, Mary Lloyd Ireland and Brian Noehren

aspect of the anterior–superior iliac spine to the distal tip of the ipsilateral medial malleolus. To calculate the composite score, the sum of maximum reaches in each of the 3 directions was divided by 3 times the leg length. 3 Strength Testing Peak isometric hip external rotation, hip abduction, and

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James J. Hannigan, Louis R. Osternig and Li-Shan Chou

would be a significant, moderate correlation between hip abduction strength and hip adduction excursion, which was supported by our results. While we cannot say definitively without electromyography (EMG) measurements, the gluteus medius was likely recruited during the hip abduction strength test. The

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Samuel Ryan, Emidio Pacecca, Jye Tebble, Joel Hocking, Thomas Kempton and Aaron J. Coutts

availability for competition. 4 Recent research and technological advances have increased the number of tools available to assess constructs of fitness and fatigue. These tools include submaximal heart rate tests, 5 countermovement jumps (CMJs), 6 lower limb muscular strength tests, 7 and perceptual

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Jocelyn F. Hafer and Katherine A. Boyer

study visits. At the first visit, they were screened, completed a practice session of strength testing procedures, and were assigned accelerometers. At the second visit, accelerometers were collected, and participants completed overground gait testing and maximal isokinetic knee extensor strength

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Cody R. Butler, Kirsten Allen, Lindsay J. DiStefano and Lindsey K. Lepley

moderate to vigorous physical activity and had lower daily step counts, which are variables that have a direct effect on cardiovascular health. Almeida et al 2 evaluated the cardiovascular system via VO 2 max and ventilatory thresholds, as well as a knee function questionnaire, isokinetic strength test

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Dae-Hyun Kim, Jin-Hee Lee, Seul-Min Yu and Chang-Man An

lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles during the isometric strength test, and measured each muscle activity in 3 different ankle positions. The muscle activity recordings were obtained by bipolar circular surface electrodes (Ag/Cl; 0.8 cm diameter) placed on each muscle at a fixed interelectrode

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Shaun O’Leary, Carlijn Hoogma, Øystein Molland Solberg, Sara Sundberg, Ashley Pedler and Luke Van Wyk

(1.58 N·m [12.4%] less, P  = .03) and CTE (4.7 N·m [17.9%] less, P  = .01) strength tests, but not for the CCF (0.29 N·m [3.6%] less) or CCE (0.98 N·m [9%] less) strength tests ( P  > .24) (Table  1 ). The CTE:CCF strength ratio was lower in the idiopathic neck pain group ( P  = .01), but no group

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Benjamin S. Killen, Krista L. Zelizney and Xin Ye

rest. The baseline (pre) tests were then conducted at the following order: NONDOM hip-flexion passive ROM (pre-ROM) and NONDOM hamstrings isometric strength testing (pre-MVIC). Following the baseline tests, one of the intervention protocols was performed: Static stretching: the SS protocol consisted of