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Thiago R.S. Tenório, P. Babu Balagopal, Lars B. Andersen, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, James O. Hill, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado and Wagner L. Prado

: correlation with joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis . Arthritis Rheum . 2000 ; 43 ( 3 ): 1233 – 43 . 10.1002/1529-0131(200006)43:6<1233::AID-ANR6>3.0.CO;2-9 2. Avloniti A , Chatzini KA , Deli CK , et al . Exercise-induced oxidative stress responses in the pediatric population

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Diogo V. Leal, Lee Taylor and John Hough

and motor neuron recruitment, ventilation, metabolic demands, and peripheral fatigue, among others, with cycling essentially promoting an amplified stress response (likely with a modified IAT) when compared with running. 31 As most exercise-induced physiological responses are intensity dependent

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Stiliani Ani Chroni, Frank Abrahamsen, Eivind Skille and Liv Hemmestad

expectancies of the outcome that determine whether the demands cause stress responses” ( Reme, Eriksen, & Ursin, 2008 , p. 179). CATS in some ways runs parallel with Lazarus’ perspectives (i.e., focusing on the interactional process between the person, environment, and cognitions), yet proposes a different

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Peter Olusoga, Marte Bentzen and Goran Kentta

. , Davison , G. , & Robinson , P. ( 2013 ). Psychophysiological and stress responses to competition in team sport coaches: An exploratory study . Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23 ( 5 ), 279 – 285 . PubMed ID: 23662710 Hunt , K.R. , & Miller , S.R. ( 1994 ). Comparison

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Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis and Henrik Gustafsson

effectively recover decreases ( McEwen, 2006 ). The continuing accumulation of training hours over the course of a season can become a stressor for athletes; this may activate physiological systems associated with the stress response that lead to the chronic overexposure of stress identified within burnout

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Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry and Michael J. Ross

manual, AMT is described as a modification of previously-designed training by Suinn ( 1990 ) used to treat anxiety where the individual would learn to identify stress responses and apply various relaxation techniques. However, for the use of this treatment with PCS, diaphragmatic breathing was introduced

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

recovery. For instance, the high anthocyanin content of tart Montmorency cherries has been shown to reduce the inflammatory and oxidative stress responses to marathon running ( Howatson et al., 2010 ) and during consecutive days of stochastic, high-intensity cycling ( Bell et al., 2014 ). Of note, only

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Stewart A. Vella

psychological stress responses. When young sport participants are exposed to ongoing stress in sport, one potential consequence is burnout. Burnout can be defined as a response to chronic stress and is characterized by symptoms of reduced perceived athletic accomplishment, emotional and physical exhaustion, and

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Kizzy Antualpa, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki and Alexandre Moreira

-or-flight systems in the body (stress response).” Indeed, chronic stress may suppress immune function ( 7 , 11 ). The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis is a major part of the neuroendocrine system and, in conjunction with the sympathetic system, connects the brain with the periphery of the body ( 46 ). The

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Vera Camões-Costa, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, David Dixon, Isabella Russo and Zoya Huschtscha

fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentration ( Costa et al., 2019b ; Costa et al., 2017b ). In addition, exercise stress has the potential to reduce gastrointestinal transit and enterocyte cell activity through mesenteric and submucosal plexus deactivation linked with the natural stress response