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Abbis H. Jaffri, Thomas M. Newman, Brent I. Smith, Giampietro L. Vairo, Craig R. Denegar, William E. Buckley and Sayers J. Miller

, such as quiet standing on force plates in laboratory settings, or using the Balance Error Scoring System in clinical settings. 8 – 10 However, because of the difference in task constraints involved in static and dynamic balance activities, static balance tests may not provide relevant information

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Carly C. Sacco, Erin M. Gaffney and Jesse C. Dean

. Kuznetsov NA , Riley MA . The role of task constraints in relating laboratory and clinical measures of balance . Gait Posture . 2015 ; 42 : 275 – 279 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.05.022 26112778 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.05.022 37. Lacour M , Bernard-Demanze L , Dumitrescu M . Posture control

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Raimey Olthuis, John van der Kamp, Koen Lemmink and Simone Caljouw

—with the possibility of relative contributions of each lying anywhere along a continuum between the two, depending on the task constraints. Error endpoint distributions typically have an elliptical shape with the orientation of the long (primary) axis indicating the primary direction of error. A primary

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Ben Serrien, Maggy Goossens and Jean-Pierre Baeyens

heights every 2 years during puberty and adolescence (U13–U15–U17–U19), meaning participants will not only practice at a single net height, but also at higher ones to prepare them for competition in the next age category. These changed organismic, environmental, and task constraints are likely to have an

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Timothy A. Hanke, Bruce Kay, Michael Turvey and David Tiberio

. Discussion There are four major results from this study of paced rhythmic lateral stepping in healthy adult subjects. First, CM motion was found to be dependent upon task constraints, namely pacing frequency. It appears modifications to CM motion serve to preserve stepping and avoid delays in stepping that

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Victoria Galea, Robyn Traynor and Michael Pierrynowski

, a by-product of a movement where temporal precision was not the primary goal. The apparent temporal regularity instead results from the influence of environmental, organism, and task constraints acting on the unfolding movement ( Thelen, 1991 ; Viviani & Laissard, 1991 ). The former class of

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Cameron T. Gibbons, Polemnia G. Amazeen and Aaron D. Likens

on task constraints ( Davids, Kingsbury, George, O’Connell, & Stock, 1999 ; van Emmerik & van Wegen, 2002 ). The implication is that a reduction in variability may not necessarily correspond to improvements in health or skilled balance. Most interesting is the observation by some researchers of a U

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Yuko Kuramatsu, Yuji Yamamoto and Shin-Ichi Izumi

. Experimental Brain Research, 126 , 289 – 306 . PubMed ID: 10382616 doi:10.1007/s002210050738 10.1007/s002210050738 Scholz , J.P. , Reisman , D.S. , & Schöner , G. ( 2001 ) Effects of varying task constraints on solutions to joint coordinationin a sit-to-stand task . Experimental Brain Research

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Phillip D. Tomporowski and Daniel M. Pendleton

. ( 2009 ). An integrated approach to the effect of acute and chronic exercise on cognition: the linked role of individual and task constraints . In T. McMorris , P.D. Tomporowski , & M. Audiffren (Eds.), Exercise and cognitive function (pp.  213 – 226 ). Chichester, UK : Wiley

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Cornelia Frank, Taeho Kim and Thomas Schack

. ( 2006 ). Observational modeling effects for movement dynamics and movement outcome measures across differing task constraints: A meta-analysis . Journal of Motor Behavior, 38 , 185 – 205 . PubMed doi:10.3200/JMBR.38.3.185-205 10.3200/JMBR.38.3.185-205 Badets , A. , & Blandin , Y. ( 2010