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Mark Evans, Peter Tierney, Nicola Gray, Greg Hawe, Maria Macken and Brendan Egan

analysis. Statistical significance was accepted at the level of p  < .05 for all statistical tests. Results Hydration status, measured as urine specific gravity, prior to each trial did not differ (CAF, 1.0159 ± 0.0086; PLA, 1.0172 ± 0.0082; p  = .521; ES = 0.16). There were main effects of time for

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Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez and Stuart D.R. Galloway

( Suppl. 2 ), 57 – 72 . doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuv032 10.1093/nutrit/nuv032 Logan-Sprenger , H.M. , & Spriet , L.L. ( 2013 ). The acute effects of fluid intake on urine specific gravity and fluid retention in a mildly dehydrated state . The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27 ( 4

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Blake D. McLean, Donald Strack, Jennifer Russell and Aaron J. Coutts

perspective . J Athl Train . 2000 ; 35 ( 2 ): 161 . PubMed ID: 16558626 28. Osterberg KL , Horswill CA , Baker LB . Pregame urine specific gravity and fluid intake by National Basketball Association players during competition . J Athl Train . 2009 ; 44 ( 1 ): 53 – 57 . PubMed ID: 19180219 doi:10

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Erik Sesbreno, Gary Slater, Margo Mountjoy and Stuart D.R. Galloway

., Tokyo, Japan). Those who were hypohydrated, as defined by a urine-specific gravity > 1.026 ( Armstrong et al., 2010 ; Rodriguez-Sanchez & Galloway, 2015 ) were excluded. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry The DXA (Lunar Prodigy; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) was calibrated with phantoms as per manufacturer

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Kayleigh R. Erickson, Gregory J. Grosicki, Mara Mercado and Bryan L. Riemann

was verified by ensuring participant’s urine-specific gravity was above 1.0. Height and weight were measured for each participant using a wall-mounted stadiometer and a calibrated digital scale, respectively. Bone mineralization measurements and analyses were obtained via DXA (Lunar iDXA; GE

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

indicators: serum sodium, plasma osmolality (P osm ), urine specific gravity (U sg ), urine osmolality (U osm ) Dehydration cut-off: c P osm  < 295 m osm /kg U sg  < 1.020 U osm  < 700–800 m osm /kg Decreased urine volume, dark-yellow urine,  decreased skin turgor, weak, rapid pulse, elevated respiratory

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Kevin C. Miller, Brendon P. McDermott and Susan W. Yeargin

-971982 Osterberg , K.L. , Horswill , C.A. , & Baker , L.B. ( 2009 ). Pregame urine specific gravity and fluid intake by National Basketball Association players during competition . Journal of Athletic Training, 44 ( 1 ), 53 – 57 . PubMed ID: 19180219 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-44.1.53 10

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

consumed outside of meals are prone to under-reporting ( 35 ). Apart from this source of error, urine specific gravity, weight loss during training, and urine color were not measured, therefore, limiting the significance of these values. However, it is noticeable that 44% of the players did not meet the

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prediction equations significantly underestimated RMR compared to measured values (range 39-401 kcal). In line with other athletic populations the Cunningham equation appears to be the most accurate for predicting resting metabolic rate in female 7s players. Reliability of Three Urine Specific Gravity Meters

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard and Louise M. Burke

reliable if not well rested and after recent large changes in fluid balance, or with intake of water-soluble vitamin supplements Urine specific gravity Simple for practitioners to operate provides quantitative result Equipment cost, some level of expertise required to operate, indirect measure, may not be