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Nathan Smith, Damien Tessier, Yannis Tzioumakis, Eleanor Quested, Paul Appleton, Philippe Sarrazin, Athanasios Papaioannou and Joan L. Duda

This article outlines the development and validation of the Multidimensional Motivational Climate Observation System (MMCOS). Drawing from an integration of the dimensions of the social environment emphasized within achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (as assumed within Duda’s [2013] conceptualization of “empowering” and “disempowering” climates), the MMCOS was developed to enable an objective assessment of the coach-created motivational environment in sport. Study 1 supported the initial validity and reliability of the newly developed observation system. Study 2 further examined the interobserver reliability and factorial structure of the MMCOS. Study 3 explored the predictive validity of the observational system in relation to athletes’ reported basic psychological need satisfaction. Overall, the results of these studies provide preliminary support for the inter- and intraobserver reliability, as well as factorial and predictive validity of the MMCOS. Suggestions for the use of this observational system in future research in sport are provided.

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James C. Martin, Douglas L. Milliken, John E. Cobb, Kevin L. McFadden and Andrew R. Coggan

This investigation sought to determine if cycling power could be accurately modeled. A mathematical model of cycling power was derived, and values for each model parameter were determined. A bicycle-mounted power measurement system was validated by comparison with a laboratory ergometer. Power was measured during road cycling, and the measured values were compared with the values predicted by the model. The measured values for power were highly correlated (R 2 = .97) with, and were not different than, the modeled values. The standard error between the modeled and measured power (2.7 W) was very small. The model was also used to estimate the effects of changes in several model parameters on cycling velocity. Over the range of parameter values evaluated, velocity varied linearly (R 2 > .99). The results demonstrated that cycling power can be accurately predicted by a mathematical model.

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Judith L. Oslin, Stephen A. Mitchell and Linda L. Griffin

The purpose of this article is to report on the development and validation of the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI). The GPAI is a multidimensional system designed to measure game performance behaviors that demonstrate tactical understanding, as well as the player’s ability to solve tactical problems by selecting and applying appropriate skills. The GPAI provides analyses of individual game performance components (e.g., decisions made, skill execution, and support) and/or overall performance (e.g., game involvement and game performance). The individual game performance components were developed and evaluated by experts to determine validity and reliability. The GPAI protocol was field tested across three categories of games: invasion (soccer and basketball), net/wall (volleyball), and field/run/score (softball). Validity and reliability were examined through three separate studies using middle school physical education specialists and their sixth-grade classes. Findings suggest that the GPAI provides a valid and reliable method for assessing game performance.

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M. Elizabeth Verner, Jeffrey B. Hecht and A. Gigi Fansler

This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to assess athletics donor motivation. An extensive literature review, followed by interviews with athletics donors, identified 14 dimensions of donor motivation. Expert review and field testing of potential survey items reduced the number of dimensions of athletics donor motivation to 12. The final instrument, Motivation of Athletics Donors (MAD-1), was pilot tested with a sample of donors from 10 NCAA Division I athletics programs. Eleven scales were validated using confirmatory factor analysis, scale reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha), and item-to-total correlations. These results (a) provide the foundation necessary for systematic study of athletics donor behavior utilizing social cognitive theory as the theoretical framework, and (b) support the use of the MAD-1 as a practical instrument for assessing the specific motivations of any particular donor group.

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Edward MeAuley and Kerry S. Courneya

This paper documents the development and validation of the three-factor Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES), a measure of global psychological responses to the stimulus properties of exercise. Two of these factors correspond to the positive and negative poles associated with psychological health, Positive Weil-Being and Psychological Distress, whereas the third factor represents subjective indicants of Fatigue. The three-factor structure originally established by exploratory factor analysis using young adults was also supported in middle-aged exercising adults using confirmatory factor analytic techniques. Moreover, convergent and discriminant validity for the SEES subscales was demonstrated by examining relations with measures of affect regularly employed in exercise domain. The SEES may represent a useful starting point for more thoroughly examining exercise and subjective responses at the global level, and these dimensions of the scale may represent possible antecedents of specific affective responsivity.

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Andreas Heissel, Anou Pietrek, Michael A. Rapp, Stephan Heinzel and Geoffrey Williams

validated during a weight-loss study ( Williams, Grow, Freedman, Ryan, & Deci, 1996 ). To reduce item redundancy and for economical reasons, researchers have used adjusted versions with fewer items (see Kasser & Ryan, 1999 ; Williams et al., 1999 ; Williams, Freedman, & Deci, 1998 ). As the HCCQ is

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Samantha Stephens, Tim Takken, Dale W. Esliger, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Joseph Beyene, Mark Tremblay, Jane Schneiderman, Doug Biggar, Pat Longmuir, Brian McCrindle, Audrey Abad, Dan Ignas, Janjaap Van Der Net and Brian Feldman

The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion validity of existing accelerometer-based energy expenditure (EE) prediction equations among children with chronic conditions, and to develop new prediction equations. Children with congenital heart disease (CHD), cystic fibrosis (CF), dermatomyositis (JDM), juvenile arthritis (JA), inherited muscle disease (IMD), and hemophilia (HE) completed 7 tasks while EE was measured using indirect calorimetry with counts determined by accelerometer. Agreement between predicted EE and measured EE was assessed. Disease-specific equations and cut points were developed and cross-validated. In total, 196 subjects participated. One participant dropped out before testing due to time constraints, while 15 CHD, 32 CF, 31 JDM, 31 JA, 30 IMD, 28 HE, and 29 healthy controls completed the study. Agreement between predicted and measured EE varied across disease group and ranged from (ICC) .13–.46. Disease-specific prediction equations exhibited a range of results (ICC .62–.88) (SE 0.45–0.78). In conclusion, poor agreement was demonstrated using current prediction equations in children with chronic conditions. Disease-specific equations and cut points were developed.

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Katherine E. Robben, David C. Poole and Craig A. Harms

A two-test protocol (incremental/ramp (IWT) + supramaximal constant-load (CWR)) to affirm max and obviate reliance on secondary criteria has only been validated in highly fit children. In girls (n = 15) and boys (n = 12) with a wide range of VO2max (17–47 ml/kg/min), we hypothesized that this procedure would evince a VO2-WR plateau and unambiguous VO2max even in the presence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL). A plateau in the VO2-work rate relationship occurred in 75% of subjects irrespective of EFL There was a range in RER at max exercise for girls (0.97–1.14; mean 1.06 ± 0.04) and boys (0.98−1.09; mean 1.03 ± 0.03) such that 3/15 girls and 2/12 boys did not achieve the criterion RER. Moreover, in girls with RER > 1.0 it would have been possible to achieve this criterion at 78% VO2max. Boys achieved 92% VO2max at RER = 1.0. This was true also for HRmax where 8/15 girls’ and 6/12 boys’ VO2max would have been rejected based on HRmax being < 90% of age-predicted HRmax. In those who achieved the HRmax criterion, it represented a VO2 of 86% (girls) and 87% (boys) VO2max. We conclude that this two-test protocol confirms VO2max in children across a threefold range of VO2max irrespective of EFL and circumvents reliance on secondary criteria.

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J.C. Norling, Jim Sibthorp and Edward Ruddell


The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Restorativeness for Activities Scale (PRAS) based on the conceptual framework of attention-restoration theory (ART). ART suggests that 4 latent constructs (being away, fascination, extent, and compatibility) must be present to enable a switch from voluntary (effortful, directed) attention to involuntary (effortless) attention and facilitate restored attention.


Data were collected from 238 participants in a variety of university exercise classes. Exploratory factor analysis reduced items to a parsimonious 12-item scale. Confirmatory factor analysis tested the best fit between a 1-dimensional versus a 4-factor solution.


The Cronbach alpha was .925. The significant analysis (P < .001) suggested that the model with 4 distinct subscales has the best data fit (goodness-of-fit index = .94, standardized root-mean-square residual = .041, incremental-fit index = .98, expected-cross-validation index = .66, comparative-fit index = .98). Composite reliability and variance extracted were calculated for each construct represented by ART: being away, .81, .59; fascination, .79, .63; extent, .89, .78; and compatibility, .68, .42.


The 12-item, 4-factor solution of the PRAS can help researchers understand the within-individual preconceptions toward the activity experience that can influence cognitive restoration.

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Willemijn M.J. van Rooij, H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons, Herwin L.D. Horemans, Malou H.J. Fanchamps, Fred A. de Laat and Johannes B.J. Bussmann

Berg-Emons, & Bussmann, 2019 ) and people after stroke ( Fanchamps, Horemans, Ribbers, Stam, & Bussmann, 2018 ). However, this validation needs to be extended to more patient populations. For example, people with a lower-limb amputation often have postures that differ from the normal population