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Maureen R. Weiss and Alan L. Smith

The role of peers has been neglected in research on youth psychosocial development in sport. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a measure of youth sport friendship quality for the purpose of facilitating such research. Dimensions and higher order themes found in Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom’s (1996) qualitative study of sport friendships among children and adolescents, as well as a core set of items from previous research (Parker & Asher, 1993), were used to develop and refine items for a sport friendship quality scale. Over the course of three studies, content, factorial, and construct validity, as well as internal consistency and test-retest reliability, were demonstrated for the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS). Future research is recommended to examine the role of children’s sport friendship quality on psychosocial development in the physical domain.

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Andreas Heissel, Anou Pietrek, Michael A. Rapp, Stephan Heinzel and Geoffrey Williams

validated during a weight-loss study ( Williams, Grow, Freedman, Ryan, & Deci, 1996 ). To reduce item redundancy and for economical reasons, researchers have used adjusted versions with fewer items (see Kasser & Ryan, 1999 ; Williams et al., 1999 ; Williams, Freedman, & Deci, 1998 ). As the HCCQ is

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Samantha Stephens, Tim Takken, Dale W. Esliger, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Joseph Beyene, Mark Tremblay, Jane Schneiderman, Doug Biggar, Pat Longmuir, Brian McCrindle, Audrey Abad, Dan Ignas, Janjaap Van Der Net and Brian Feldman

The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion validity of existing accelerometer-based energy expenditure (EE) prediction equations among children with chronic conditions, and to develop new prediction equations. Children with congenital heart disease (CHD), cystic fibrosis (CF), dermatomyositis (JDM), juvenile arthritis (JA), inherited muscle disease (IMD), and hemophilia (HE) completed 7 tasks while EE was measured using indirect calorimetry with counts determined by accelerometer. Agreement between predicted EE and measured EE was assessed. Disease-specific equations and cut points were developed and cross-validated. In total, 196 subjects participated. One participant dropped out before testing due to time constraints, while 15 CHD, 32 CF, 31 JDM, 31 JA, 30 IMD, 28 HE, and 29 healthy controls completed the study. Agreement between predicted and measured EE varied across disease group and ranged from (ICC) .13–.46. Disease-specific prediction equations exhibited a range of results (ICC .62–.88) (SE 0.45–0.78). In conclusion, poor agreement was demonstrated using current prediction equations in children with chronic conditions. Disease-specific equations and cut points were developed.

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Katherine E. Robben, David C. Poole and Craig A. Harms

A two-test protocol (incremental/ramp (IWT) + supramaximal constant-load (CWR)) to affirm max and obviate reliance on secondary criteria has only been validated in highly fit children. In girls (n = 15) and boys (n = 12) with a wide range of VO2max (17–47 ml/kg/min), we hypothesized that this procedure would evince a VO2-WR plateau and unambiguous VO2max even in the presence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL). A plateau in the VO2-work rate relationship occurred in 75% of subjects irrespective of EFL There was a range in RER at max exercise for girls (0.97–1.14; mean 1.06 ± 0.04) and boys (0.98−1.09; mean 1.03 ± 0.03) such that 3/15 girls and 2/12 boys did not achieve the criterion RER. Moreover, in girls with RER > 1.0 it would have been possible to achieve this criterion at 78% VO2max. Boys achieved 92% VO2max at RER = 1.0. This was true also for HRmax where 8/15 girls’ and 6/12 boys’ VO2max would have been rejected based on HRmax being < 90% of age-predicted HRmax. In those who achieved the HRmax criterion, it represented a VO2 of 86% (girls) and 87% (boys) VO2max. We conclude that this two-test protocol confirms VO2max in children across a threefold range of VO2max irrespective of EFL and circumvents reliance on secondary criteria.

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J.C. Norling, Jim Sibthorp and Edward Ruddell

Background:

The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Restorativeness for Activities Scale (PRAS) based on the conceptual framework of attention-restoration theory (ART). ART suggests that 4 latent constructs (being away, fascination, extent, and compatibility) must be present to enable a switch from voluntary (effortful, directed) attention to involuntary (effortless) attention and facilitate restored attention.

Method:

Data were collected from 238 participants in a variety of university exercise classes. Exploratory factor analysis reduced items to a parsimonious 12-item scale. Confirmatory factor analysis tested the best fit between a 1-dimensional versus a 4-factor solution.

Results:

The Cronbach alpha was .925. The significant analysis (P < .001) suggested that the model with 4 distinct subscales has the best data fit (goodness-of-fit index = .94, standardized root-mean-square residual = .041, incremental-fit index = .98, expected-cross-validation index = .66, comparative-fit index = .98). Composite reliability and variance extracted were calculated for each construct represented by ART: being away, .81, .59; fascination, .79, .63; extent, .89, .78; and compatibility, .68, .42.

Conclusion:

The 12-item, 4-factor solution of the PRAS can help researchers understand the within-individual preconceptions toward the activity experience that can influence cognitive restoration.

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Samuel Mettler, Christof Mannhart and Paolo C. Colombani

Food-guide pyramids help translate nutrient goals into a visual representation of suggested food intake on a population level. No such guidance system has ever been specifically designed for athletes. Therefore, the authors developed a Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes that illustrates the number of servings per food group needed in relation to the training volume of an athlete. As a first step, an average energy expenditure of 0.1 kcal · kg−1 · min−1 for exercise was defined, which then was translated into servings of different food groups per hour of exercise per day. Variable serving sizes were defined for athletes’ different body-mass categories. The pyramid was validated by designing 168 daily meal plans according to the recommendations of the pyramid for male and female athletes of different body-mass categories and training volumes of up to 4 hr/d. The energy intake of the meal plans met the calculated reference energy requirement by 97% ± 9%. The carbohydrate and protein intakes were linearly graded from 4.6 ± 0.6–8.5 ± 0.8 g · kg−1 · d−1 and 1.6 ± 0.2–1.9 ± 0.2 g · kg−1 · d−1, respectively, for training volumes of 1–4 hr of exercise per day. The average micronutrient intake depended particularly on the dietary energy intake level but was well above the dietary reference intake values for most micronutrients. No tolerable upper intake level was exceeded for any micronutrient. Therefore, this Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes may be used as a new tool in sports nutrition education (e.g., teaching and counseling).

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Nathan F. Meier, Yang Bai, Chong Wang and Duck-chul Lee

Prediction Equations and Cross-Validation Statistics by Variable Method Prediction equation Adjusted R 2 MAPE SEE ALM Simple model DXA ALM  = 0.0673 + (0.6732 × BIA ALM ) + (2.33507 × sex) + (0.13349 × BMI) .936 0.051 1.276 SBC DXA ALM  = 0.100752 + (0.667613 × BIA ALM ) − (0.004767 × age) + (2.363436 × sex

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Yaohui He, Phillip Ward and Xiaozan Wang

physical educators (SHAPE) America standards for beginning physical education teachers ( SHAPE America, 2017 ), and they are being proposed as standards for Chinese physical education teachers (Z. Yin, personal communication, July 28, 2017). In physical education, CCK and SCK have been validated in a

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John Cairney, Heather Clark, Dean Dudley and Dean Kriellaars

.7 0.9 8.0 11.9 29.7 50.5 1.2 Note. CSAPPA = Children’s Self-Perception of Adequacy in and Predilection for Physical Activity. Measures Existing age-appropriate and validated measures (scales and subscales) that capture the motor competence, motivation, and affective domains, as per our model, were

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Andrew P. Hill, Howard K. Hall, Paul R. Appleton and Jemma J. Murray

Recent research suggests that validation-seeking and dimensions of perfectionism may be antecedents of athlete burnout. The present investigation examined whether validation and growth-seeking mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. One-hundred and fifty canoe polo and kayak slalom athletes recruited from the top two divisions in the UK completed measures of validation and growth-seeking (GOI), perfectionism (HMPS), and athlete burnout (ABQ). Analyses supported the mediating role of validation-seeking in the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. However, while bivariate correlations indicated that self-oriented perfectionism was positively related to both validation and growth-seeking, neither mediated the self-oriented perfectionism-burnout relationship. The findings suggest that validation-seeking may be an important psychological factor in the development of burnout for athletes exhibiting high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism. The relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and athlete burnout remains unclear because of its association with multiple motives and with socially prescribed perfectionism.