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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

of pacing behavior. 2 , 4 As shown before in observational and experimental studies, an opponent could be such an affordance, inviting exercisers to adjust their pacing behavior. 4 – 6 For example, the presence of a virtual opponent has been revealed to improve performance. 5 , 7 – 9 Moreover

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Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Melbourne F. Hovell

encourage participation. c Reinforcement of PA participation was offered by research personnel through nonverbal gestures (eg, fist bump), verbal praise (eg, “Great seeing you today!”), or earning tokens (eg, virtual tokens as a stamp in a PA passport to earn prizes or immediate tangible rewards such as

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Aaron England, Timothy Brusseau, Ryan Burns, Dirk Koester, Maria Newton, Matthew Thiese and Benjamin Chase

kinesthesia and the use of MRs of intentional movements in children and concluded that the development of kinesthetic perception takes many years to fully mature and is thought to end around late adolescence. Using a virtual radial Fitts task, Caeyenberghs et al. ( 2009 ) reported rapid growth in the

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

pedal force at the start of each TT. To replicate real-world TT cycling, participants consequently used a self-pacing strategy where gearing was adjusted throughout efforts using the virtual gear changer mounted to the handlebars. Feedback over elapsed time and strong encouragement were provided

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Logan A. Lucas, Benjamin S. England, Travis W. Mason, Christopher R. Lanning, Taylor M. Miller, Alexander M. Morgan and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

ecological validity (eg, athletes react to a virtual defender). 32 , 33 It is also important to note that our results may not generalize to more experienced athletes with greater expertise, as elite athletes may be better equipped to control their movement when there are temporal constraints on decision

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Jonathan D. Connor, Robert G. Crowther and Wade H. Sinclair

global body displacement of a rugby player . The International Journal of Virtual Reality, 8 ( 4 ), 31 – 36 . Brault , S. , Bideau , B. , Kulpa , R. , & Craig , C.M. ( 2012 ). Detecting deceptive movement: The case of the side-step in rugby . PLoS ONE, 7 ( 6 ), 37494 . doi:10

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, memory, and prediction. I will discuss these factors in the context of walking and interception tasks in both real and virtual environments. Keynote Speakers Keynote Speaker: Motor Development Infants’ actions broaden their mind Gustaf Gredebäck, University of Uppsala, Sweden Three suggestions are

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Lana M. Pfaff and Michael E. Cinelli

. Participants were outfitted with two rear-facing rigid bodies (one on the head and one on the right scapula), which were used as references for five digitized virtual markers (left and right ears, left and right glenohumeral joints, and the 10th thoracic vertebrae). The digitized points were used to calculate

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Rob van der Straaten, Oren Tirosh, William A. (Tony) Sparrow and Rezaul Begg

coordination . J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci . 2005 ; 60 : 312 – 319 . PubMed ID: 15860466 doi:10.1093/gerona/60.3.312 15860466 10.1093/gerona/60.3.312 11. Baram Y , Miller A . Virtual reality cues for improvement of gait in patients with multiple sclerosis . Neurology . 2006 ; 66 : 178 – 181