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Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems and Darryn S. Willoughby

; Sandoval et al., 1989 ; Walberg-Rankin et al., 1993 ) have reported deficiencies in intakes of micronutrients, such as vitamin D, calcium, zinc, magnesium, and iron in dieting bodybuilders. The authors of the review noted that because all of these studies were published nearly two to three decades ago

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Christopher Rosimus

. Squash is an indoor sport. Individuals who perform indoors are at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency ( Angeline et al., 2013 ). In athletes, vitamin D deficiency may impair muscle function, compromise the immune system, and impair bone health ( Need et al., 2000 ). The aim of this case study was

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

may help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively without performance impediments. These supplements include creatine monohydrate, beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and anti-inflammatory supplements such as curcumin or tart cherry

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Nathan A. Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore and Charles R. Pedlar

winter training period when the athlete had been healthy, obtained via the GB team nutritionist for comparison. Table 2 Dietary Analysis Pre-UUPS UUPS a 14 mo Energy (kcal) 3166 1966 3030 Carbohydrate (g) 432 208 308 Protein (g) 194 134 179 Fat (g) 78 72 121 Vitamin E (mg) 7.2 11.1 21 Vitamin A (μg) b

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Tom Clifford

EIMD in Older Adults Results Study Subjects Age (years) Supplementation Design Exercise Time points a Blood markers Subjective and muscle function Cannon et al. ( 1990 ) 12 sedentary males 55–74 Vitamin E (400 IU) vs. placebo capsules × 2·days for 48 days preexercise and 10 days postexercise (from 48

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Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima and Mitsuru Higuchi

in heavier weight-class professional athletes ( Guo et al., 2013 ). Recent studies indicate that low circulating vitamin D concentrations, measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], are associated with a higher risk of poor cardiovascular outcome and physical fitness ( Girgis et al., 2014 ; Parker

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

nutrients, such as vitamin E, vitamin D, calcium, iron, and magnesium ( 20 , 28 , 36 ). Suitable fueling and nutrition plays an important role for a team sport, such as football, considering its metabolic demands during running, sprinting, stopping, turning, and jumping. Football is physiologically

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Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R. Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres and Romulo Araújo Fernandes

age (10–19 y old), only the variance of maturity (maturity offset) was used in the analysis. Due to the absence of a widely adopted questionnaire, a nutritionist created a questionnaire with foods rich in vitamin D commonly observed in a Brazilian diet ( 1 ). The adolescents reported the frequency of

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Paula J. Robson, Patrick J.D. Bouic and Kathryn H. Myburgh

The influence of an antioxidant vitamin supplement on immune cell response to prolonged exercise was determined using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Twelve healthy endurance subjects (n = 6 male, n = 6 female; mean ± SD for age, 30.1 ± 6.2 yr; height, 1.76 ± 7 m; body mass, 72.2 ± 10.2 kg; VO2max, 63.7 ± 12 ml · kg–1 · min–1) participated in the study. Following a 3-week period during which subjects ingested a multivitamin and -mineral complex sufficient to meet the recommended daily allowance, they took either a placebo or an antioxidant vitamin supplement (containing 18 mg β-carotene, 900 mg vitamin C, and 90 mg vitamin E) for 7 days prior to a 2-h treadmill run at 65% VO2max. Blood samples were drawn prior to and immediately following exercise. These were analyzed for neutrophil oxidative burst activity, cortisol and glucose concentrations, and white blood cell counts, as well as serum anti-oxidant vitamin concentrations. Plasma vitamin C, vitamin E, and β-carotene concentrations significantly increased following 7-day supplementation (p < .05). In comparison to the placebo group, neutrophil oxidative burst was significantly higher following exercise (p < .05), but no differences were found in any other parameter following the 7-day supplementation period. Although the impact of exercise on neutrophil function is multifactorial, our data suggest that antioxidant supplementation may be of benefit to endurance athletes for the maintenance of this particular function of the innate immune system following the 7-day supplementation period.

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Jennifer L. Krempien and Susan I. Barr

Energy intakes of adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been reported to be relatively low, with many micronutrients below recommended amounts, but little is known about the diets of athletes with SCI. The purpose of this cross-sectional, observational study was to assess energy intakes and estimate the prevalence of dietary inadequacy in a sample of elite Canadian athletes with SCI (n = 32). Three-day self-reported food diaries completed at home and training camp were analyzed for energy (kcal), macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals and compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was estimated by the proportion of athletes with mean intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR). Energy intakes were 2,156 ± 431 kcal for men and 1,991 ± 510 kcal for women. Macronutrient intakes were within the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. While at training camp, >25% of men had intakes below the EAR for calcium, magnesium, zinc, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, and vitamin D intakes were higher at home than training camp. Over 25% of women had intakes below the EAR for calcium, magnesium, folate, and vitamin D, with no significant differences in mean intakes between home and training camp. Vitamin/mineral supplement use significantly increased men’s intakes of most nutrients but did not affect prevalence of inadequacy. Women’s intakes did not change significantly with vitamin/mineral supplementation. These results demonstrate that athletes with SCI are at risk for several nutrient inadequacies relative to the DRIs.