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Jose A. Cecchini and Alejandro Carriedo

groups and the specific curriculum they belonged to a Mathematical curriculum Physical education curriculum  Learning single-digit subtraction with numbers ranging from 0 to 9.  Increasing the moderate–vigorous physical activity levels of children. (b) Teaching procedures used in each group Traditional

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Rosemarie Martin and Elaine Murtagh

Background:

A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Active Classrooms intervention, which integrates movement into academic lessons, on the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (MVPA) of primary school children during class-time and throughout the school day.

Methods:

Ten classroom teachers and their students aged 8 to 12 years were recruited and randomized into the Active Classrooms intervention group (n = 131students, n = 5teachers) or a delayed-treatment controlled group (n = 117students, n = 5teachers). The intervention group participated in active academic lessons taught by the classroom teacher over an 8 week period. Accelerometers were used to gather physical activity data at baseline, postintervention and at 4 months follow-up. Teachers completed a questionnaire to evaluate the program.

Results:

A significant difference for change in daily class time MVPA levels was identified between the treatment (n = 95) and control (n = 91) groups from pre- to postintervention (P < .001) and this difference was maintained at follow-up (P < .001). No significant difference emerged between the treatment and control groups for change in school day MVPA levels from pre- to postintervention (P = .52) or follow-up (P = .09). Teachers reported that they were highly satisfied with the program.

Conclusions:

Movement integration has the potential to improve physical activity levels of primary school children in the classroom.

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Erin Strutz, Raymond Browning, Stephanie Smith, Barbara Lohse and Leslie Cunningham-Sabo

–vigorous PA (MVPA) and adults to accumulate 30 minutes of MVPA on most days of the week; however, existing estimates of children’s activity levels suggest that only 42% of children aged 6–11 years and only 5% of adults actually achieve these daily goals. 3 – 5 Given the lack of participation in regular PA

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Jocelyn F. Hafer and Katherine A. Boyer

other age-related factors that affect strength, such as physical activity level or fatigability. Highly active adults may be protected from increases in functional demand with age or in response to bouts of activity because physical activity level correlates with muscle strength in older adults 17 – 19

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Rachel Tinius, Kolbi Edens, Kim Link, M. Susan Jones, Scott Lyons, Tatum Rebelle, Kevin J. Pearson and Jill Maples

PA. The most commonly utilized service was prenatal yoga, and although prenatal yoga has been shown to have important health benefits, 39 this mode of exercise is unlikely to impact step counts or vigorous activity levels; however, it may reduce time spent sedentary. Methods to help pregnant women

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Marjan Mosalman Haghighi, Yorgi Mavros and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh

dietary intervention or usual diet, usual medical care, placebo or sham activity, placebo dietary supplement, lifestyle advice only (without behavioral change strategies), usual activity level, alternative exercise or diet intervention hypothesized to be less effective than the experimental intervention

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Wendy M. Rodgers, Craig R. Hall, Philip M. Wilson and Tanya R. Berry

The purpose of this research was to examine whether exercisers and nonexercisers are rated similarly on a variety of characteristics by a sample of randomly selected regular exercisers, nonexercisers who intend to exercise, and nonexercisers with no intention to exercise. Previous research by Martin Ginis et al. (2003) has demonstrated an exerciser stereotype that advantages exercisers. It is unknown, however, the extent to which an exerciser stereotype is shared by nonexercisers, particularly nonintenders. Following an item-generation procedure, a sample of 470 (n = 218 men; n = 252 women) people selected using random digit dialing responded to a questionnaire assessing the extent to which they agreed that exercisers and nonexercisers possessed 24 characteristics, such as “happy,” “fit,” “fat,” and “lazy.” The results strongly support a positive exerciser bias, with exercisers rated more favorably on 22 of the 24 items. The degree of bias was equivalent in all groups of respondents. Examination of the demographic characteristics revealed no differences among the three groups on age, work status, or child-care responsibilities, suggesting that there is a pervasive positive exerciser bias.

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Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Jeffrey Martin, Qin Lai, Amy Kliber and Brett Reed

The purpose of this study was to determine how physical education students’ cardiovascular responses as determined by mean heart rate, standard deviation of heart rate, and percentage of time in target heart rate zone varied according to student characteristics. Participants were 505 students in Grades 3 through 12. The Polar Accurex Plus heart rate telemetry system was used to measure the physiological load on the cardiovascular system. Three-way ANOVA results suggested that heart rate patterns in physical education varied according to gender, grade, and activity. For example, secondary school girls were more active in individual activities while secondary school boys were more active in team sport activities. Elementary students were the most active group and had the most variability in their heart rate patterns.

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Michelle M. Yore, Sandra A. Ham, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Caroline A. Macera, Deborah A. Jones and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

In 2001, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included a new occupational physical activity (PA) question. This article evaluates the reliability of this survey question.

Methods:

Forty-six subjects were followed for 3 wk, answered 3 PA surveys by telephone, and completed daily PA logs for 1 wk. Kappa statistics determined the reliability of occupational activities (sitting/standing, walking, and heavy lifting). A descriptive analysis compared the time in specific occupational activities.

Results:

Eighty percent of the respondents reported “mostly sitting or standing” at work; and test–retest reliability was moderate (k = 0.40 to 0.45). The occupationally inactive sat/stood for 85% (mean hours = 5.6) of the workday, whereas the occupationally active sat/stood for 53% (mean hours = 3.9) of the workday.

Conclusions:

The BRFSS occupational activity question has moderate reliability, distinguishes between occupationally active and inactive persons, and can be used in surveillance systems to estimate adult occupational PA.

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Peter A. Hastie and Stewart G. Trost

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sport education can provide students with sufficient opportunities for developing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Nineteen seventh-grade boys (average age = 12.9 yrs.) participated in a 22-lesson season of floor hockey. For all students (both higher and lower skilled), students averaged a total of 31.6 min of MVPA during the season, or 63.2% of lesson time. Further, there was no significant difference according to skill level {33.4 min (Higher) vs. 30.4 min (Lower), nor were there any significant differences in MVPA levels across the phases of the season.