In our comment on Koehler and Conley’s (2003) findings on the “hot hand” belief, we want to emphasize the different conclusions that can be drawn from their results by applying the concept of ecological rationality. The choice of environmental contexts and structures imposes constraints on possible interpretations of the results obtained. Differentiating between the cognitive and behavioral levels of the phenomenon seems analytically useful, particularly if practical recommendations to professionals are to be made. The implications of Koehler and Conley’s data, new evidence, and the relationship between the perceived streaks of players and their base rates are discussed with the aim of developing empirically founded recommendations to professionals in sports, especially in real game situations.
Bartosz Gula and Markus Raab
Deborah J. Buswell, Claudine Sherrill, Ronald French and Bettye Myers
The purpose was to examine perspectives on publication of highly productive women adapted physical activity scholars. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 women from three countries, and data were analyzed utilizing constant comparison methodology. Profiles of two groups, significantly different on publication productivity, emerged and were named highest high producers (HHP) and other high producers (OHP). Similarities between the two groups included affective domain qualities, facilitating factors, and overcoming barriers. Differences were mainly in degree of self-determination, prioritization of writing relative to significant others, collaboration, and collegiality. Based on thematic analysis of interview data, we posited the following: high publication productivity of women adapted physical activity professionals is associated with internal motivation to write, which is enhanced by positive interactions with other professionals, supportive home environments, and supportive work environments.
Allen W. Burton
The possibility that movement problems experienced by children may be at least partially accounted for by perceptual deficits needs to be considered by adapted physical educators. The ecological approach to perception, emphasizing the person-environment relationship, provides a useful conceptual foundation for defining perceptual deficits in relation to movement, for assessing perceptual deficits, and for designing and implementing remedial programs. A starting point for acknowledging the interaction of perception and movement in adapted physical education programs might be to strive to include activities that are purposeful in nature whenever possible. The next step, for students who may be suspected of having perceptual deficits, might be to help the children become better attuned to the affordances in their environment.
Claudia Emes, Patti Longmuir and Peter Downs
Adapted physical activity professionals have embraced for some time the concept of a nonmedical model; however, traditional approaches in service delivery continue to exist. Abilities-based is not a model for service delivery; it is an approach that offers a new perspective that is based on person-centerdness, openness, and compatibility. The focus is on the person in a learning situation, not the disability, not the activity, and not the environment. Although these factors cannot be ignored, emphasis in an ability-based approach shifts to the person. Attitude within and toward service delivery is the critical point of departure in the abilities-based approach. This article discusses demystifying disability and building positive attitudes as features of this approach. It then discusses the influence of this approach on how we prepare future professionals of adapted physical activity, and it concludes with an example of an abilities-based program.
Justin A. Haegele, Jihyun Lee and David L. Porretta
The purpose of this documentary analysis was to examine trends in research published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) over a 10-yr span. A total of 181 research articles published from 2004 to 2013 were coded and analyzed using the following categories: first-author country affiliation, theoretical framework, intervention, research methods, disability categories, and topical focus. Results indicate high frequencies of nonintervention and group-design studies, as well as a low frequency of studies that describe a theoretical or conceptual framework. Trends in disability of participants and topical focus reflect current interests of researchers publishing in APAQ. While some scholars have suggested that changes in research on adapted physical activity would occur, the results of this analysis suggest that many of these categories remain largely unchanged for research published in APAQ. This study calls attention to similarities between the results of the current analysis and previous ones.
Yeshayahu Shayke Hutzler
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a growing movement in the health and educational disciplines that recommends emphasis on research outcomes during decision making in practice. EBP is made possible through evidence based research (EBR), which attempts to synthesize the volume and scientific rigor of intervention effectiveness. With the purpose of assessing the impact of this movement on adapted physical activity, this article (a) describes EBP/EBR and outlines its methodological development, (b) provides an historical perspective of EBP/EBR in APA, (c) examines EBR quality indicators in the review literature published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, (d) identifies and synthesizes thematic domains appearing in these review articles, and (e) discusses practical examples of professional issues in APA arising from a lack of EBR.
Wendy M. Holmes and Madeleine E. Hackney
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of 16 individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) partaking in an adapted tango class and the perceived impact on participation and quality of life (QOL). The Ecology of Human Performance and the International Classification of Function were the theoretical frameworks for the study. Data collection involved focus groups conducted during the intervention and at a follow-up six months later. Data analysis followed inductive thematic analysis techniques. The themes addressed living with PD, the class structure and experiences, the participants’ expectations for the class, and the multiple effects experienced by participants at both time periods. The results suggest that adapted tango, when offered in a structured environment with skilled instruction, may improve skills for participation in daily activities and contribute to increased QOL for persons with PD.
Danielle Peers, Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere and Lindsay Eales
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) currently mandates that authors use person-first language in their publications. In this viewpoint article, we argue that although this policy is well intentioned, it betrays a very particular cultural and disciplinary approach to disability: one that is inappropriate given the international and multidisciplinary mandate of the journal. Further, we contend that APAQ’s current language policy may serve to delimit the range of high-quality articles submitted and to encourage both theoretical inconsistency and the erasure of the ways in which research participants self-identify. The article begins with narrative accounts of each of our negotiations with disability terminology in adapted physical activity research and practice. We then provide historical and theoretical contexts for person-first language, as well as various other widely circulated alternative English-language disability terminology. We close with four suggested revisions to APAQ’s language policy.
Michael W. Churton
In the 10 years since the enactment of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) (1975), special education has grown substantially. Physical education, although cited within the definition of special education, has not grown to the same degree relative to number of teachers trained and children served. Financial assistance from the federal government helped develop adapted physical education programs but it has not been adequate to meet the needs. Several areas of concern are identified and recommendations are made for possible implementation of the physical education mandate of the EHA.
This article proposes a theory- and practice-based model for adapting physical activities. The ecological frame of reference includes Dynamic and Action System Theory, World Health Organization International Classification of Function and Disability, and Adaptation Theory. A systematic model is presented addressing (a) the task objective, (b) task criteria, (c) limitation and enablement criteria, (d) performance errors, and (e) adaptation suggestions. Four individual case examples are described, referring to the conceptual model and depicting its use in various settings of physical activity, including physical education, rehabilitation, competition, and recreation.