Physical fitness can be defined as a set of characteristics related to health and performance, including aerobic fitness, muscular endurance, strength and power, body composition, flexibility, balance, agility, and reaction time ( 7 , 22 ). In children and adolescents, the characteristics directly
Kathryn L. Weston, Nicoleta Pasecinic and Laura Basterfield
Greg Doncaster, John Iga and Viswanath Unnithan
are affected by high levels of systematic team sport training requires further investigation. Another means of evaluating an individual’s aerobic fitness is via the assessment of VO 2 kinetics. The relative contribution of oxidative and nonoxidative energy supply during exercise is dependent upon the
Georges Baquet, Gregory Dupont, François-Xavier Gamelin, Julien Aucouturier and Serge Berthoin
Intermittent exercises are frequently used by athletes to improve aerobic fitness. These are defined by exercise intensity and duration, recovery intensity and duration, number of repetitions, and number of series. Intermittent exercise is also an intrinsic characteristic of children’s spontaneous
Myriam Paquette, François Bieuzen and François Billaut
and VL Δ[HHb]. PPO is typically determined by aerobic fitness (VO 2 max), anaerobic fitness, and energy cost of paddling (or efficiency). 21 Unpublished data from our group suggest a moderate correlation between maximal lactate production and maximal deoxygenation during a 4-minute all-out effort on
Edited by Thomas W. Rowland
Kenneth H. Pitetti, Bo Fernhall, Nancy Stubbs and Louis V. Stadler Jr.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a step test could be feasible, reliable, and valid for youths with educable (EMR) or trainable (TMR) mental retardation. Thirteen males and 11 females (age M = 14.7 ± 2.7 yr) with EMR or TMR participated in this study. Three step tests were employed using one platform height and stepping frequencies of 13, 15, and 17 ascents/min for 3 min. Recovery HR was used to estimate VO2peak. Though significant, correlations between the recovery HR and VO2peak for the 15 (r = −0.48) and 17 (r = −0.46) ascents/min were not high enough to be considered valid indicators of VO2peak. The large standard errors of the estimate and total errors suggested systematic errors of prediction. Furthermore, the measured VO2peak was significantly different from the estimated values at all step rates (p < .05). The step-test was relatively feasible, but was not a valid test of VO2peak in this population.
Andrew O. Agbaje, Eero A. Haapala, Niina Lintu, Anna Viitasalo, Juuso Väistö, Sohaib Khan, Aapo Veijalainen, Tuomo Tompuri, Tomi Laitinen and Timo A. Lakka
dilatation . Br J Clin Pharmacol . 2008 ; 65 ( 2 ): 238 – 43 . PubMed ID: 17953720 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.03006.x 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.03006.x 17953720 36. Reed KE , Warburton DER , Lewanczuk RZ , et al . Arterial compliance in young children: the role of aerobic fitness . Eur J
Erwan Leclair, Benoit Borel, Delphine Thevenet, Georges Baquet, Patrick Mucci and Serge Berthoin
This study first aimed to compare critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC), to laboratory standard evaluation methods such as maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD). Secondly, this study compared child and adult CP and AWC values. Subjects performed a maximal graded test to determine V̇O2max and maximal aerobic power (MAP); and four constant load exercises. In children, CP (W.kg−1) was related to V̇O2max (ml.kg−1.min−1; r = .68; p = .004). AWC (J.kg−1) in children was related to MAOD (r = .58; p = .018). Children presented lower AWC (J.kg−1; p = .001) than adults, but similar CP (%MAP) values. CP (%MAP and W.kg−1) and AWC (J.kg−1) were significantly related to laboratory standard evaluation methods but low correlation indicated that they cannot be used interchangeably. CP (%MAP) was similar in children and adults, but AWC (J.kg−1) was significantly lower in children. These conclusions support existing knowledge related to child-adults characteristics.
Shelby L. Francis, Ajay Singhvi, Eva Tsalikian, Michael J. Tansey and Kathleen F. Janz
Determining fitness is important when assessing adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Submaximal tests estimate fitness, but none have been validated in this population. This study cross-validates the Ebbeling and Nemeth equations to predict fitness (VO2max (ml/kg/min)) in adolescents with T1DM.
Adolescents with T1DM (n = 20) completed a maximal treadmill test using indirect calorimetry. Participants completed one 4-min stage between 2.0 and 4.5 mph and 5% grade (Ebbeling/Nemeth protocol). Speed and grade were then increased until exhaustion. Predicted VO2max was calculated using the Ebbeling and Nemeth equations and compared with observed VO2max using paired t tests. Pearson correlation coefficients, 95% confidence intervals, coefficients of determination (R2), and total error (TE) were calculated.
The mean observed VO2max was 47.0 ml/kg/min (SD = 6.9); the Ebbeling and Nemeth mean predictions were 42.4 (SD = 9.4) and 43.5 ml/kg/min (SD = 6.9), respectively. Paired t tests resulted in statistically significant (p < .01) mean differences between observed and predicted VO2max for both predictions. The association between the Ebbeling prediction and observed VO2max was r = .90 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.96), R 2 = .81, and TE = 6.5 ml/kg/min. The association between the Nemeth prediction and observed VO2max was r = .81 (95% CI = 0.57, 0.92), R 2 = .66, and TE = 5.6 ml/kg/min.
The Nemeth submaximal treadmill protocol provides a better estimate of fitness than the Ebbeling in adolescents with T1DM.