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Tanya McGuane, Stephen Shannon, Lee-Ann Sharp, Martin Dempster and Gavin Breslin

increased team identification. Furthermore, in a study of hockey players ( Benson & Bruner, 2018 ), SIT principles were supported such that prosocial teammate behaviors were associated with higher levels of in-group ties and in-group affect. However, as indicated in the review by Rees et al., there has been

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Ahmad F. Mohd Kassim and Ian D. Boardley

the coaching efficacy model to the assessment of coaching effectiveness have defined coaching effectiveness as the extent to which coaches can implement their knowledge and skills to positively affect the learning and performance of their athletes ( Boardley et al., 2008 ; Kavussanu, Boardley

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Frazer Atkinson, Sandra E. Short and Jeffrey Martin

the “belief coaches have in their ability to affect the learning and performance of their athletes” ( Feltz et al., 1999 ; p. 153). Most athletes, particularly high-level performers (e.g., college soccer players), develop efficacy, or confidence, in both their team (i.e., team efficacy) and their

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Stephen Pack, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Stacy Winter and Brian Hemmings

-Barrow, 2018 ). Typically defined as “communication which is perceived by any of the interacting parties as humorous behavior that leads to laughter, smiling, or a feeling of amusement” ( Robinson, 1991 , p. 10), humor is a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon consisting of physiological, cognitive, affective

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Philip D. Imholte, Jedediah E. Blanton and Michelle M. McAlarnen

the influence that positive expectations have on performance ( Duan, Li, Xu, & Wu, 2017 ). Nate’s experience was also reminiscent of sport research that has suggested that coaches form expectations that affect their behavior, which in turn affects athletes’ performance and behavior that, in sum

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Elizabeth M. Mullin, James E. Leone and Suzanne Pottratz

 al., 1993 ). AI consists of cognitive, affective, behavioral, and social components ( Brewer et al., 1993 ). As a cognitive structure, AI provides a framework for interpreting information, determines how an athlete may cope with career-threatening situations, and inspires behavior consistent with the

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Paul A. Sellars, Stephen D. Mellalieu and Camilla J. Knight

ability to cope with demands throughout transitions. In addition, limited opportunities to participate and progress in rugby union can affect enjoyment and satisfaction with the sport due to players’ being unable to achieve desired goals and aspirations or not perceiving benefits from the time invested

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Moira Lafferty and Caroline Wakefield

exclusion if they did not attend. Participant 1 talked about how not attending might affect future socials, describing how “everyone encouraged us to go . . . like older years . . . to get to know people better, and I knew if I didn’t go on the first one I probably wouldn’t go on them again,” while

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Jarred Pilgrim, Peter Kremer and Sam Robertson

are important, the attitudes of significant others, such as those of the coach, could be even more important in forging cultural norms that affect the behaviors of those within their sphere of influence ( Moreland et al., 2017 ). In Australian golf, national coaches assume an influential role in state

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Tammy Sheehy, Sam Zizzi, Kristen Dieffenbach and Lee-Ann Sharp

been shown to be a key component of the consulting relationship ( Sharp, Hodge, & Danish, 2015 ), and developing a trusting relationship between the SPC and client has been highlighted as encouraging clients to openly discuss different factors that affect their performance ( Poczwardowski & Sherman