A squash player’s ability to perform high-intensity variable movements is a key determinant of success at the elite level ( Wilkinson et al., 2012 ). The body composition of a squash player may affect performance as carrying excessive body fat may increase injury risk and impair agility and speed
Yassine Negra, Helmi Chaabene, Senda Sammoud, Olaf Prieske, Jason Moran, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Ali Nejmaoui and Urs Granacher
assessment of proxies of muscle power (ie, CMJ, standing long jump [SLJ]), speed (ie, 5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint test); CoD (ie, Illinois change of direction test [ICoDT]; modified 505 agility test); and kicking-distance test were conducted. All tests were scheduled at least 48 hours after players’ most recent
Gillian K. Myburgh, Sean P. Cumming, Manuel Coelho E. Silva, Karl Cooke and Robert M. Malina
To evaluate relationships among skeletal maturity, body size, and functional capacities of elite junior tennis players.
Participants were 88 elite British Junior tennis players (44 male; 44 female), 8–16 years of age (12.4 } 1.9 years). Skeletal age estimated maturty. Anthropometry, grip strength, countermovement jump, squat jump, forehand agility, backhand agility, Yo-Yo, 5-m, 10-m and 20-m sprints were measured. Comparative analysis for each sex was performed, relating advanced maturers (Male: 15; Female: 29) to a combination of on-time and late maturers (Male: 29; Female: 31). ANCOVAs were used to determine absolute differences between male and female players and between the 2 maturity subgroups, with chronological age as the covariate.
Advanced maturity afforded male players advantages in absolute measures of grip strength, speed, upper and lower body power but not in acceleration, agility or aerobic endurance. Male players were significantly taller than females in the U13-U16 age group. Advanced maturity in female players afforded advantages in absolute measures of grip strength, agility and overhead power, but not in backhand agility, aerobic endurance or squat jump power.
It is important that talent identification protocols consider the maturity of youth athletes to more satisfactorily address athletic potential rather than transient physical capabilities.
Kevin Currell, Steve Conway and Asker E. Jeukendrup
The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of a new test of soccer performance and evaluate the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) on soccer performance. Eleven university footballers were recruited and underwent 3 trials in a randomized order. Two of the trials involved ingesting a placebo beverage, and the other, a 7.5% maltodextrin solution. The protocol comprised a series of ten 6-min exercise blocks on an outdoor Astroturf pitch, separated by the performance of 2 of the 4 soccer-specific tests, making the protocol 90 min in duration. The intensity of the exercise was designed to be similar to the typical activity pattern during soccer match play. Participants performed skill tests of dribbling, agility, heading, and shooting throughout the protocol. The coefficients of variation for dribbling, agility, heading, and shooting were 2.2%, 1.2%, 7.0%, and 2.8%, respectively. The mean combined placebo scores were 42.4 ± 2.7 s, 43.1 ± 3.7 s, 210 ± 34 cm, and 212 ± 17 points for agility, dribbling, heading, and kicking, respectively. CHO ingestion led to a combined agility time of 41.5 ± 0.8 s, for dribbling 41.7 ± 3.5 s, 213 ± 11 cm for heading, and 220 ± 5 points for kicking accuracy. There was a significant improvement in performance for dribbling, agility, and shooting (p < .05) when CHO was ingested compared with placebo. In conclusion, the protocol is a reliable test of soccer performance, and ingesting CHO leads to an improvement in soccer performance.
João Ribeiro, Luís Teixeira, Rui Lemos, Anderson S. Teixeira, Vitor Moreira, Pedro Silva and Fábio Y. Nakamura
.01156 30177889 20. Hammami M , Negra Y , Billaut F , Hermassi S , Shephard RJ , Chelly MS . Effects of lower-limb strength training on agility, repeated sprinting with changes of direction, leg peak power, and neuromuscular adaptations of soccer players . J Strength Cond Res . 2018 ; 32 ( 1
Laura Capranica, Monica Tiberi, Francesco Figura and Wayne H. Osness
This study compared functional fitness scores of American and Italian older adults on the AAHPERD test battery for adults over 60 years old. Sedentary participants (N = 186, age 60–79 years) undertook the 6 AAHPERD test items: Between American and Italian men, no statistically significant difference was found for coordination and endurance. American men scored better on flexibility and strength, whereas Italian men scored better on body mass index (BMI) and agility. Between American and Italian women, no statistically significant difference was found for BMI and agility. American women scored better on coordination and endurance, whereas Italian women scored better on flexibility and strength. The data suggest that the AAHPERD test battery is an appropriate tool for assessing and comparing functional fitness levels of older adults in different societies.
Ro DiBrezzo, Barbara B. Shadden, Blake H. Raybon and Melissa Powers
Loss of balance and falling are critical concerns for older adults. Physical activity can improve balance and decrease the risk of falling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simple, low-cost exercise program for community-dwelling older adults. Sixteen senior adults were evaluated using the Senior Fitness Test for measures of functional strength, aerobic endurance, dynamic balance and agility, and flexibility. In addition, measures of height, weight, resting blood pressure, blood lipids, and cognitive function were obtained. Participants then attended a 10-week exercise class including stretching, strengthening, and balance-training exercises. At the completion of the program, significant improvements were observed in tests measuring dynamic balance and agility, lower and upper extremity strength, and upper extremity flexibility. The results indicate that exercise programs such as this are an effective, low-cost solution to improving health and factors that affect falling risk among older adults.
Rodney Negrete and Jay Brophy
To determine (1) correlations between isokinetic lower extremity strength and functional performance and (2) correlations among different modes of isokinetic testing.
Design and Setting:
A correlational design with 6 measures. A series of strength, power, and agility tests was performed at a hospital-based outpatient physical therapy clinic.
A volunteer sample of 29 male and 31 female, college-age subjects participated.
All subjects were tested in the following isokinetic tests: reciprocal leg press, single-leg squat, and knee extension. Performance tests included single-leg hop and vertical jump and a speed/agility test.
Analysis showed isokinetic knee extension, leg press, and single-leg squat strength significantly correlated to all functional tests. There were significant correlations among the 3 different isokinetic strength measures, as well.
These results suggest a significant relationship between lower extremity open and closed chain isokinetic strength and functional performance testing.
Martin G. Jorgensen, Uffe Laessoe, Carsten Hendriksen, Ole B.F. Nielsen and Per Aagaard
The aims of the current study were to examine the intrarater intersession reproducibility of the Nintendo Wii agility and stillness tests and explore the concurrent validity in relation to gold-standard force-plate analysis. Within-day intersession reproducibility was examined in 30 older adults (age 71.8 ± 5.1 yr). No systematic test–retest differences were found for the Wii stillness test; however, the Wii agility test scores differed systematically between test sessions (p < .05). The Wii stillness test yielded a test–retest ICC of .86 (95% CI 0.74–0.93), CV of 6.4%, LOA of 11.0, and LOA% of 17.9%. Likewise for the Wii agility test ICC was .73 (95% CI 0.50-0.86), CV 5.3%, LOA 1.8, and LOA% of 14.6%. Wii stillness scores correlated to force plate measures (r = .65–.82, p < .01), reflecting moderate to excellent validity. In conclusion, it appears that the Wii stillness test represents a low-cost, objective, reproducible, and valid test of undisturbed postural balance in community-dwelling older adults.
Tamara Kramer, Barbara C.H. Huijgen, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser and Chris Visscher
To analyze how physical fitness (PF) improves in elite junior tennis players related to age, maturity, and performance level.
Elite junior tennis players (n = 113 boys, n = 83 girls) divided by performance level were monitored longitudinally from U14 to U16. Maturity, upper and lower-body power, speed, and agility were measured during subsequent competitive seasons. Improvement was analyzed per sex using multilevel analysis.
PF components for boys and girls improved over age (U14-U16) (ES .53–.97). In boys, the more mature boys outscored the less mature boys in upper and lower-body power from U14-U16. In girls, high-ranked girls outscored lower-ranked girls on lower-body power, speed, and agility (U14-U16) (p < .05).
Boys and girls improved on all PF components during U14-U16. In boys, power was related to maturity. In girls, lower-body power, speed, and agility were related to tennis performance. This has important implications for talent development.