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Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, T. Michelle Magyar and Larry A. Scanlan

The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand’s elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

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Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Amador García-Ramos, Victor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Juan A. Párraga-Montilla, José A. Morcillo-Losa, Pierre Samozino and Jean-Benoît Morin

between players of different sexes competing at the same level. To address these research gaps, we evaluated the sprint mechanical F–V profile of men and women who were competing at different levels (from elite to amateur) in soccer and futsal. Specifically, the main aim of the present study was to

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Adam Jones, Chris Brogden, Richard Page, Ben Langley and Matt Greig

amateur male soccer players (22.13 [2.36] y) participated in the current study. Inclusion criteria specified that in addition to weekly matches, players had typical training volumes ≥3 sessions per week, had not suffered any lower-limb injury in the 6 months prior to the commencement of the study, had no

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Peter J. Whalley, Chey G. Dearing and Carl D. Paton

performance. The study also determined the reproducibility of caffeine effects along with examining any relationship between athlete ability and the magnitude of caffeine’s ergogenic effect. Methods Sixteen amateur runners initially volunteered to participate in this study. All runners gave their written

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Adam Jones, Richard Page, Chris Brogden, Ben Langley and Matt Greig

quantified in terms of distance covered. Additional outcome measures in rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and a visual analog scale (VAS) measure of lower-limb muscle soreness were also recorded to reflect the perceptual influence of playing surface. Participants Fifteen amateur male soccer players (22

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Berit Skirstad and Packianathan Chelladurai

This article builds on prior theory and research on institutional logics and shows how a multisports club changes during its organizational life from an all amateur or voluntary logic to embody multiple logics simultaneously with different subunits being aligned with different organizational fields. The emergence of the professional logic for elite soccer in the presence of a volunteer logic caused a change in the structure of the club whereby all the units in the club became economically and legally autonomous. Soccer was divisionalized into soccer for everybody and soccer for the elite. The creation of a shareholding company and the use of an investment company which introduced the commercial logic were the next steps. This paper extends the literature by suggesting that different and opposing institutional logics such as the amateur, the professional, and commercial logics can coexist within a multisports club or, to put it another way, that the multisports club may belong to several organizational fields.

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Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Larry A. Scanlan, Tatiana J. Klunchoo and Graig M. Chow

Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players’ open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.

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Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Daniel A. Keir and Juan M. Murias

POST) would be interrelated and strongly correlated. Methods Participants Eight men who were highly trained amateur cyclists (PRE mean (SD); 39 [5] y; 179 [7] cm; 78 [8] kg) volunteered and provided written informed consent to participate in this study after completing the physical activity readiness

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Janet Lever and Stanton Wheeler

A content analysis of The Chicago Tribune’s sports page from 1900 to 1975 provides an empirical base for assessing the changing nature of organized sport in American life. The findings show that there has been an expansion of the sports page relative to the rest of the newspaper; there has been remarkable stability in the coverage of the dominant sports of baseball and football; and there has been a progressive shift from amateur to professional, from local or regional events to national ones, and from individual to team sporting activity. This expanded role for sport is part of a more general trend to be expected in a leisure oriented society.

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Geneviève Rail

This paper suggests the usefulness of a general theoretical framework based on the model of strategic analysis elaborated by Crazier and Friedberg (1977/1980). This sociological theory allows for the understanding of complex sport organizations by the study of strategies and power relationships within them. The theory is linked to a restricted phenomenological method that can be used to discover the material, structural, and human conditions that limit and define the rationality of organizational actors, and thereby the meaning of their observable behaviors. Theory and method are explicated, and the paper concludes with an empirical example of the use of strategic analysis for the study of amateur sport federations.