performance. The study also determined the reproducibility of caffeine effects along with examining any relationship between athlete ability and the magnitude of caffeine’s ergogenic effect. Methods Sixteen amateur runners initially volunteered to participate in this study. All runners gave their written
Peter J. Whalley, Chey G. Dearing and Carl D. Paton
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Larry A. Scanlan, Tatiana J. Klunchoo and Graig M. Chow
Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players’ open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.
Berit Skirstad and Packianathan Chelladurai
This article builds on prior theory and research on institutional logics and shows how a multisports club changes during its organizational life from an all amateur or voluntary logic to embody multiple logics simultaneously with different subunits being aligned with different organizational fields. The emergence of the professional logic for elite soccer in the presence of a volunteer logic caused a change in the structure of the club whereby all the units in the club became economically and legally autonomous. Soccer was divisionalized into soccer for everybody and soccer for the elite. The creation of a shareholding company and the use of an investment company which introduced the commercial logic were the next steps. This paper extends the literature by suggesting that different and opposing institutional logics such as the amateur, the professional, and commercial logics can coexist within a multisports club or, to put it another way, that the multisports club may belong to several organizational fields.
Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Daniel A. Keir and Juan M. Murias
POST) would be interrelated and strongly correlated. Methods Participants Eight men who were highly trained amateur cyclists (PRE mean (SD); 39  y; 179  cm; 78  kg) volunteered and provided written informed consent to participate in this study after completing the physical activity readiness
Vincenzo Ricci and Levent Özçakar
Muscle injuries are very common in sports medicine, but involvement of the paraspinal muscles is relatively rare. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but diagnostic imaging modalities (ie, ultrasound and magnetic resonance) identify, in detail, the anatomical site and extension of the lesion helping the physician plan a specific rehabilitation program. Likewise, the authors present an unusual case of a amateur volleyball player who suffered injury of the paraspinal muscles after a session of manual therapy with deep massage. The authors also highlight the potential role of ultrasound imaging in detecting muscle injuries not only in the limbs but also at the level of paraspinal region for prompt management and return to play.
Ciria Margarita Salazar C., Pedro Julian Flores Moreno, José Encarnación Del Río Valdivia, Lenin Tlamatini Barajas Pineda, Julio Alejandro Gómez Figueroa and Martha Patricia Pérez López
The purpose of this paper is to describe the profile of coaching and coach education in Mexico. Mexico currently plays a prevailing sport role at a Pan-American level. Five types of coaches exist in Mexico: professional, amateur, personal or private, schooling and plainspeople. Each one is defined by the scopes, knowledge and its application, and sporting results achieved. The development of Mexican coaches is based on a traditional training model. It is important that coach developers in Mexico observe the progresses of countries that have advanced in the development of academic improvement programs and coach development opportunities offered through institutes of higher education.
Frank Jacobs, Annelies Knoppers, Rene Diekstra and Marcin Sklad
A frequent critique of coach education courses is that they are designed by scholars with little input from coaches about what they think they need. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and content of a coach education course that was grounded in stakeholder needs. Dutch amateur football coaches felt ill-equipped to handle conflicts and confrontational behaviors by players and/or parents. Therefore a coach education course was created to help coaches develop tools they could use to improve their interpersonal skills. The tools were drawn from the teaching strategies of Forgatch and DeGarmo (1999) and Rational-Emotive Education (REE) (Knaus, 1974).
Janet Lever and Stanton Wheeler
A content analysis of The Chicago Tribune’s sports page from 1900 to 1975 provides an empirical base for assessing the changing nature of organized sport in American life. The findings show that there has been an expansion of the sports page relative to the rest of the newspaper; there has been remarkable stability in the coverage of the dominant sports of baseball and football; and there has been a progressive shift from amateur to professional, from local or regional events to national ones, and from individual to team sporting activity. This expanded role for sport is part of a more general trend to be expected in a leisure oriented society.
This paper suggests the usefulness of a general theoretical framework based on the model of strategic analysis elaborated by Crazier and Friedberg (1977/1980). This sociological theory allows for the understanding of complex sport organizations by the study of strategies and power relationships within them. The theory is linked to a restricted phenomenological method that can be used to discover the material, structural, and human conditions that limit and define the rationality of organizational actors, and thereby the meaning of their observable behaviors. Theory and method are explicated, and the paper concludes with an empirical example of the use of strategic analysis for the study of amateur sport federations.
J. R. Woodward
In this article the author examines sports guides that are dedicated to critiquing collegiate football players eligible for the annual National Football League amateur draft. An effort is made to assess whether the scouts in these guides describe collegiate players in ways that correspond with U.S. race logic as articulated by Coakley (1998). More specifically, the article focuses on the mental and physical descriptions of African American and White athletes by professional scouts. The results show that African American players are more likely to be described in physical terms (rather than mental terms) than are White players in the same positions.