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André Klostermann, Ralf Kredel and Ernst-Joachim Hossner

quiet eye findings” because “‘too much of a good thing’ also can be detrimental” ( Janelle et al., 2000 , p. 179). Likewise, Behan and Wilson ( 2008 ) suggested an inverted-U relation for performance as a function of QE duration, as has been well established, for example, for arousal or anxiety levels

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Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse and Sebastian Ludyga

regards the possible effects due to an increased psychophysiological arousal, which, by definition, increases attention and perception. Future studies might, for instance, compare exercising with watching exciting or funny movies to distinguish whether, and to what extent, exercising or “mere

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Peter J. Whalley, Chey G. Dearing and Carl D. Paton

pain, arousal, and pleasure/displeasure during a cycling time trial in endurance-trained and active men . Physiol Behav . 2012 ; 106 ( 2 ): 211 – 217 . PubMed ID: 22349482 doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.02.006 22349482 13. Guest N , Corey P , Vescovi J , El-Sohemy A . Caffeine, CYP1A2

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Joshua Strahorn, Carmen Colomer, Andrew McKune, Christian Cook and Kate Pumpa

performance in a sporting context; in higher concentrations, it can be arousing, 1 , 7 but it may also lead to fatigue and anxiety in prolonged doses. 1 , 6 , 7 Changes in testosterone, as opposed to cortisol, have been reported to be influenced by team culture and are individually sensitive. 3 , 8 Thus

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Michael B. Johnson, William A. Edmonds, Akihito Kamata and Gershon Tenenbaum

The purpose of this article is to present the procedural steps used to derive a person’s Individual Affect-Related Performance Zones (IAPZs). An IAPZ is that range of affect (i.e., arousal and pleasure) within which an individual has a probability of performing at a particular level (e.g., optimal, moderate, or poor). This methodology has been used in a number of research studies but has yet to be operationalized in the literature. The purpose of this procedure is to facilitate training programs designed to improve human performance in any number of domains via idiosyncratic control over affect. The methodology described consists of eight steps: (a) collecting data, (b) categorizing affect and performance level, (c) converting the data, (d) performing logistical ordinal regressions, (e) creating IAPZ curves, (f) creating IAPZ profile charts, (g) plotting within competition states onto IAPZ profile charts, and (h) utilizing IAPZs to select, implement, and evaluate performance enhancement strategies.

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Stephanie J. Hanrahan, J. Robert Grove and Richard J. Lockwood

This paper presents the development and implementation of a psychological skills training program for blind athletes. The structure of the program was based on the personal accounts of successful athletes and the results of studies using sighted athletes. Skills designed to give insight to the body/mind relationship, raise or lower arousal levels, maintain motivation, prepare for competition, and improve problem-solving abilities were introduced to the athletes. Participants completed a self-assessment of psychological skills to determine the skill areas they had strengths in and therefore should take advantage of as well as those mental skill areas in which they could improve. A qualitative evaluation of the program is presented and recommendations for future programs are discussed. Overall, few changes were needed to accommodate for the athletes’ visual impairments.

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Ryan Sides, Graig Chow and Gershon Tenenbaum

The purpose of this study was to explore adaptation through the manipulation of perceived task difficulty and self-efficacy to challenge the concepts postulated by the two-perception probabilistic concept of the adaptation phenomenon (TPPCA) conceptual framework. Twenty-four randomized performers completed a handgrip and putting task, at three difficulty levels, to assess their self-efficacy and perceived task difficulty interactions on motivations, affect, and performances. The TPPCA was partially confirmed in both tasks. Specifically, as the task difficulty level increased, arousal increased, pleasantness decreased, and the performance declined. There was no solid support that motivational adaptations were congruent with the TPPCA. The findings pertaining to the human adaptation state represent a first step in encouraging future inquiries in this domain. The findings clarify the notion of perceived task difficulty and self-efficacy discrepancy, which then provokes cognitive appraisals and emotional resources to produce an adaptation response.

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Maxime Deshayes, Corentin Clément-Guillotin and Raphaël Zory

biopsychosocial model of arousal regulation . Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 28 , 1 – 51 . doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60235-X Borg , G. ( 1970 ). Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress . Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2 , 92 – 98 . PubMed ID: 5523831 Bosson

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Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano, Itay Basevitch and Gershon Tenenbaum

anterior cingulate cortex with the prefrontal cortex to process goal-relevant information ( Benn et al., 2014 ) and facilitating emotional control enables the performer to achieve an optimum arousal level required to perform the task ( Vickers & Williams, 2007 ). Importantly, the QE period does not

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Ali Al-Yaaribi, Maria Kavussanu and Christopher Ring

uncertainty regarding goal attainment and coping, and is characterized by feelings of apprehension and tension, along with arousal of the autonomic nervous system ( Jones et al., 2005 ). Anxiety occurs when situations are perceived as stressful and threatening ( Eysenck, 1992 ). The recipient of prosocial