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André Klostermann, Ralf Kredel and Ernst-Joachim Hossner

quiet eye findings” because “‘too much of a good thing’ also can be detrimental” ( Janelle et al., 2000 , p. 179). Likewise, Behan and Wilson ( 2008 ) suggested an inverted-U relation for performance as a function of QE duration, as has been well established, for example, for arousal or anxiety levels

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Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse and Sebastian Ludyga

regards the possible effects due to an increased psychophysiological arousal, which, by definition, increases attention and perception. Future studies might, for instance, compare exercising with watching exciting or funny movies to distinguish whether, and to what extent, exercising or “mere

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Peter J. Whalley, Chey G. Dearing and Carl D. Paton

pain, arousal, and pleasure/displeasure during a cycling time trial in endurance-trained and active men . Physiol Behav . 2012 ; 106 ( 2 ): 211 – 217 . PubMed ID: 22349482 doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.02.006 22349482 13. Guest N , Corey P , Vescovi J , El-Sohemy A . Caffeine, CYP1A2

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Joshua Strahorn, Carmen Colomer, Andrew McKune, Christian Cook and Kate Pumpa

performance in a sporting context; in higher concentrations, it can be arousing, 1 , 7 but it may also lead to fatigue and anxiety in prolonged doses. 1 , 6 , 7 Changes in testosterone, as opposed to cortisol, have been reported to be influenced by team culture and are individually sensitive. 3 , 8 Thus

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Maxime Deshayes, Corentin Clément-Guillotin and Raphaël Zory

biopsychosocial model of arousal regulation . Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 28 , 1 – 51 . doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60235-X Borg , G. ( 1970 ). Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress . Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2 , 92 – 98 . PubMed ID: 5523831 Bosson

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Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano, Itay Basevitch and Gershon Tenenbaum

anterior cingulate cortex with the prefrontal cortex to process goal-relevant information ( Benn et al., 2014 ) and facilitating emotional control enables the performer to achieve an optimum arousal level required to perform the task ( Vickers & Williams, 2007 ). Importantly, the QE period does not

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Ali Al-Yaaribi, Maria Kavussanu and Christopher Ring

uncertainty regarding goal attainment and coping, and is characterized by feelings of apprehension and tension, along with arousal of the autonomic nervous system ( Jones et al., 2005 ). Anxiety occurs when situations are perceived as stressful and threatening ( Eysenck, 1992 ). The recipient of prosocial

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Richard Latzel, Olaf Hoos, Sebastian Stier, Sebastian Kaufmann, Volker Fresz, Dominik Reim and Ralph Beneke

rest during the BEST, caloric equivalent, and body mass by using: W aer (kJ) = VO 2 (mL·kg −1 ) × caloric equivalent (J·mL −1 ) × body mass (kg) × 1000 −1 . Since measurement of the resting VO 2 before the BEST may be problematic due to sympathetic arousal, 14 the equivalent of VO 2 in a standing

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Shannon O’Donnell, Christopher M. Beaven and Matthew Driller

Alternatively, 90 minutes is also considered optimal as this allows a complete sleep cycle (nonrapid eye movement [NREM] and rapid eye movement [REM]) to occur, reducing the effects of sleep inertia. 14 Sleep inertia is a temporary reduction in arousal and performance, which is associated with slow-wave sleep

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Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Danilo Iannetta, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Maria F. Piacentini, Carl Foster, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen and Jos J. de Koning

: results from the United Kingdom Health and Lifestyle Survey . Psychol Aging . 2006 ; 21 ( 1 ): 62 – 73 . doi:10.1037/0882-7974.21.1.62 16594792 10.1037/0882-7974.21.1.62 21. Lambourne K , Tomporowski P . The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: a meta