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Noora J. Ronkainen, Amanda Shuman and Lin Xu

knowledgeable and have limited access to information that could help them develop competence and autonomy in their practice. Several studies have also shown that the vast majority of media coverage continues to focus on men’s sport and perpetuate the norm of male superiority ( Cooky et al., 2015 ). While

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James Dimmock, David Simich, Timothy Budden, Leslie Podlog, Mark Beauchamp and Ben Jackson

in-session factor might negate or exacerbate the effects of induced perceptual distance between anchor and target. Need- supportive instruction—focused on support for autonomy (e.g., choice, rationale), competence (e.g., positive feedback, clarity), and relatedness (e.g., empathy, care, friendliness

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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson

). Psychological Well-Being It was measured using the 84-item Scales of Psychological Well-Being (SPWB; Ryff & Keyes, 1995 ), which is a 6-point measure ranging from 1 ( strongly disagree ) to 6 ( strongly agree ) and comprised of six subscales (i.e., positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental

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Sofie Kent, Kieran Kingston and Kyle F. Paradis

positive well-being is when the social environment facilitates satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence , and relatedness ( Quested & Duda, 2011 ). Autonomy refers to the experience of choice, interest, and actions in accordance with one’s self-endorsed values ( Deci

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

to be involved in a more autonomy supportive environment ( Gagné et al., 2003 ). Luke, Elly, and Lisa further explained that from a young age, they favored being a circus artist over becoming a professional gymnast, in the hope that circus could provide them with a more enjoyable environment to

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Stephen Macdonald and Justine Allen

, & Abraham, 2007 ; Mills et al., 2014a ). Factors include a long-term vision, coherent messages, clear expectations, winning in perspective relative to development, encouraging self-responsibility and autonomy, and an individualised approach to development and support ( Martindale et al., 2007 ; Martindale

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Nathan F. Johnson, Chloe Hutchinson, Kaitlyn Hargett, Kyle Kosik and Phillip Gribble

-related declines in flexibility can be minimized by stretching. 9 Mixed functional outcomes have been reported on various tasks following improved flexibility. 10 Rising from a seated position on the floor is a functional task that affords autonomy and is dependent on an individual’s musculoskeletal health

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Anna E. Chalkley, Ash C. Routen, Jo P. Harris, Lorraine A. Cale, Trish Gorely and Lauren B. Sherar

). Discretionary time periods during the school day where pupils are given some autonomy for how they spend their time, such as recess and lunchtime, have received much attention as windows of opportunity to increase children’s physical activity ( Langford et al., 2014 ). Within the United Kingdom, the popularity

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Sarah Stokowski, Bo Li, Benjamin D. Goss, Shelby Hutchens and Megan Turk

is autonomous/self-directed, thereby supporting the natural tendencies of behaving in healthy and productive ways ( Deci & Ryan, 1985a ). The ability to be motivated in such a manner is controlled by the presence of three need factors: autonomy, competence, and purpose ( Lyness, Lurie, Ward, Mooney

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Juan Andrés Merino-Barrero, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, Noelia Belando Pedreño and Javier Fernandez-Río

also be influenced by three basic psychological needs ( Deci & Ryan, 2012 ): autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is associated with the efforts that individuals make to feel at the origin of their actions and to determine their own behavior. Competence is defined as the intention to control