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Andreas Heissel, Anou Pietrek, Michael A. Rapp, Stephan Heinzel and Geoffrey Williams

, and integrated regulation; Ryan & Deci, 2017 ). The theory comprises a model for how environmental factors support or thwart people’s inherent and natural growth process through the satisfaction and frustration of their basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Satisfaction

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Cassidy Preston and Jessica Fraser-Thomas

to provide one of the first practical AGT-driven coaching programs, with promising results. SDT SDT proposes that athletes are intrinsically motivated when their three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 ) and that intrinsic (i.e., self

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Noora J. Ronkainen, Amanda Shuman and Lin Xu

knowledgeable and have limited access to information that could help them develop competence and autonomy in their practice. Several studies have also shown that the vast majority of media coverage continues to focus on men’s sport and perpetuate the norm of male superiority ( Cooky et al., 2015 ). While

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Alex Knowles, Tristan L. Wallhead and Tucker Readdy

( Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002 ). Figure 1 —Trans-contextual model of motivation. Adapted from Hagger et al. ( 2003) . Self-determination theory Self-determination motivation is achieved through the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of relatedness, competence, and autonomy ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 , 2000

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James Dimmock, David Simich, Timothy Budden, Leslie Podlog, Mark Beauchamp and Ben Jackson

in-session factor might negate or exacerbate the effects of induced perceptual distance between anchor and target. Need- supportive instruction—focused on support for autonomy (e.g., choice, rationale), competence (e.g., positive feedback, clarity), and relatedness (e.g., empathy, care, friendliness

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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson

). Psychological Well-Being It was measured using the 84-item Scales of Psychological Well-Being (SPWB; Ryff & Keyes, 1995 ), which is a 6-point measure ranging from 1 ( strongly disagree ) to 6 ( strongly agree ) and comprised of six subscales (i.e., positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental

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Cathal Óg O’Sullivan, Melissa Parker, Tom Comyns and Annmarie Ralph

framework that connects students’ innate motivation underlying their behavior and is reflected as key psychological concepts of autonomy, competence, and relatedness ( Deci & Ryan, 2000 ). This theory provides an important structure to PE teachers’ specific teaching methodologies ( Mitchell et al., 2013

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Sofie Kent, Kieran Kingston and Kyle F. Paradis

positive well-being is when the social environment facilitates satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence , and relatedness ( Quested & Duda, 2011 ). Autonomy refers to the experience of choice, interest, and actions in accordance with one’s self-endorsed values ( Deci

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

to be involved in a more autonomy supportive environment ( Gagné et al., 2003 ). Luke, Elly, and Lisa further explained that from a young age, they favored being a circus artist over becoming a professional gymnast, in the hope that circus could provide them with a more enjoyable environment to

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Stephen Macdonald and Justine Allen

, & Abraham, 2007 ; Mills et al., 2014a ). Factors include a long-term vision, coherent messages, clear expectations, winning in perspective relative to development, encouraging self-responsibility and autonomy, and an individualised approach to development and support ( Martindale et al., 2007 ; Martindale