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Josef Mitáš, Ding Ding, Karel Frömel and Jacqueline Kerr

Background:

Post-communist countries have experienced rapid economic development and social changes, which have been accompanied by changes in health-related lifestyle behaviors, such as physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of domain-specific physical activity and total sedentary time with BMI among adults in the Czech Republic.

Methods:

We surveyed a nationally representative sample (n = 4097) of the Czech Republic in fall 2007 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long form). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine associations of physical activity, sedentary time and sociodemograhic characteristics with BMI.

Results:

Older age, lower educational attainment, and lower levels of leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher BMI. Compared with those living in large cities, men living in small towns and women living in small villages had higher BMI.

Conclusions:

This study has identified correlates of BMI in the Czech Republic. Although more evidence from longitudinal studies is needed, findings from the current study can inform interventions to prevent the rising obesity epidemic.

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Karen P. DePauw

This study was undertaken to investigate the total body and segmental centers of mass of individuals with Down’s syndrome. The 40 subjects were divided equally by gender into the following age groups: (a) ages 6 to 10, (b) ages 11 to 18, (c) adult females, and (d) adult males. Data on mass centroid locations were collected through a photogrammetric technique. Frontal and right sagittal-view slide photographs on each subject were digitized and the data logged into a computer program. The program calculated the segmental mass centroid locations and total body center of mass. Differences in total body and segmental center of mass locations were found between individuals with Down’s syndrome (DS) and nonhandicapped individuals. Analysis of the data on the DS children indicated that the mean center of mass location for the total body was within the range reported for nonhandicapped children. The adult DS male and female subjects were found to have a lower total body center of mass when compared to existing data on nonhandicapped adults. It was also found that the segmental mass centroid locations for the head and trunk segment of DS subjects were consistently lower than those found in nonhandicapped individuals. This finding points to an overall lowering of the center of mass found with DS subjects.

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Stefan Schmid, Stéphane Armand, Zoltan Pataky, Alain Golay and Lara Allet

An important prerequisite to carry out daily activities is the sit-to-stand movement. However, in obese people, this movement is characterized by altered biomechanics, which might lead to daily life activity impairments. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in kinetic and kinematic variables between three different BMI categories when performing a specific sit-to-stand test. Thirty-six adult women (BMI = 17–45 kg/m2) performed the sit-to stand test five times consecutively and as quickly as possible. Analyses of variance were used to determine differences between three BMI groups (normal or overweight: BMI < 30 kg/m2; obese: 30 ≤ BMI < 35; severely obese: BMI ≥ 35). Peak and mean vertical sacrum velocity indicated a decrease in severely obese subjects. Obese and severely obese individuals did not show higher fatigue over the five consecutive movements. Peak force and rate of force development decreased in normal or overweight subjects. The ability to successfully complete the test decreased with a higher BMI, probably due to a reduced ability to rapidly generate a high force.

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Richard Lowry, Sarah M. Lee, Deborah A. Galuska, Janet E. Fulton, Lisa C. Barrios and Laura Kann

Background:

Few studies have focused on the relationship between physical activity-related (PA) injury and overweight among youth.

Methods:

We analyzed data from the 2001 and 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 28,815). Logistic regression was used to examine the independent effects of BMI and frequency of participation in vigorous activity, moderate activity, strengthening exercises, physical education (PE) classes, and team sports on the likelihood of PA injury.

Results:

Approximately 14% of females and 19% of males reported seeing a doctor or nurse during the previous 30 d for an injury that happened while exercising or playing sports. PA injury was associated with participation in team sports, strengthening exercises, and (among females) vigorous physical activity. Controlling for type and frequency of physical activity, injury was not associated with being overweight (BMI ≥ 95th percentile).

Conclusions:

Moderate physical activity and school PE classes may provide relatively low-risk alternatives for overweight youth who need to increase their physical activity.

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Michael W. Beets, Guy C. Le Masurier, Aaron Beighle, David A. Rowe, Charles F. Morgan, Jack Rutherford, Michael Wright, Paul Darst and Robert Pangrazi

Background:

The purpose of this study was to cross-validate international BMI-referenced steps/d cut points for US girls (12,000 steps/d) and boys (15,000 steps/d) 6 to 12 years of age.

Methods:

Secondary pedometer-determined physical activity data from US children (N = 1067; 633 girls and 434 boys, 6 to 12 years) were analyzed. Using international BMI classifications, cross-validation of the 12,000 and 15,000 steps/d cut points was examined by the classification precision, sensitivity, and specificity for each age–sex stratum.

Results:

For girls (boys) 6 to 12 years, the 12,000 (15,000) steps/d cut points correctly classified 42% to 60% (38% to 67%) as meeting (achieved steps/d cut point and healthy weight) and failing (did not achieve steps/d cut point and overweight). Sensitivity ranged from 55% to 85% (64% to 100%); specificity ranged from 23% to 62% (19% to 50%).

Conclusion:

The utility of pedometer steps/d cut points was minimal in this sample given their inability to differentiate among children who failed to achieve the recommended steps/d and exhibited an unhealthy weight. Caution, therefore, should be used in applying previous steps/d cut points to US children.

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Gregory J. Norman, Sandra K. Nutter, Sherry Ryan, James F. Sallis, Karen J. Calfas and Kevin Patrick

Background:

Neighborhood-level environmental features have been associated with adult physical activity and weight status, but this link has not been established for adolescents.

Methods:

Community design and access to recreational facilities variables were derived using geographic information systems (GIS) for 799 adolescents (age 11 to 15 y, mean = 12.8 y, 53% girls, 43% ethnic minority). Environment variables were calculated for a 1-mile buffer around each participant’s residence. Accelerometers measured min/d of physical activity.

Results:

Number of nearby recreation facilities and number of nearby parks correlated positively with girls’ physical activity, and intersection density inversely related to girls’ physical activity. Retail floor area ratio correlated positively with boys’ physical activity. No community design or access to recreation variables were related to BMI-percentile.

Conclusions:

There was limited evidence that both community design and access to recreation facilities variables were associated with adolescent physical activity, but additional built environment variables need to be studied that have particular relevance for youth.

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Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro, Joana Carvalho, Maria Paula Santos and Júlio Martins

The aim of this study was twofold (1), to examine the prospective relationship of baseline TV viewing with BMI and CRF both at baseline and over a 2-year period, and (2) to examine the prospective relationship of baseline TV viewing and changes (Δ) on BMI and CRF over a 2-year period. Data were collected in a sample of 135 (64 girls) rural children ages 7 yr-old from elementary schools in Fundao, Portugal. Obesity status was obtained by the age-sex specific BMI cut points and CRF by a 9 min run test. TV viewing was also analyzed and children were assigned as one of two groups: the low TV watching (LTV), and high TV watching (HTV), users based upon them reported to spend less or more than 2 h/day watching TV, respectively. Logistic regression showed that those who were assigned to HTV group were 2.4 times (OR = 2.48; p = .04) more likely to be classified as unfit at time 1. Further the data showed that the LTV were more likely (OR = 0.36; p = .02) to be classified in high ΔCRF change over time. The findings of this study suggest that there was a significant inverse association between times spent watching TV and CRF but not BMI over a 2-yr period.

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Lyutha K. Al Subhi, Shekar Bose and Maraim F. Al Ani

Background:

A cross-country profile of physical activity and sedentary behavior is lacking within Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) counties. The objectives were to examine prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among adolescents of 10 EMR countries, and to describe potential differences in the 2 factors by sex, age, and BMI.

Methods:

A total of 23,562 adolescents were included from 10 EMR counties based on completeness of data (physical activity, sedentary behavior, age, sex, weight and height) from the Global school-based student health survey (GSHS).

Results:

Overall prevalence of physical activity (19%) is low and sedentary behavior is high (29%), with significant differences among counties. Oman had the highest (26%) and Egypt had the lowest (9%) prevalence of active students. Prevalence of sedentary behavior was the highest in United Arab Emirates (40%) and lowest in Pakistan (8%). Physical activity was lower and sedentary behavior was higher among female adolescents. A linear trend was observed between BMI and both physical activity and sedentary behavior; a similar pattern was seen with age.

Conclusions:

There is a need for interventions to increase the prevalence of adolescents meeting physical activity recommendations in the 10 countries. More investigation is required to understand the cultural context of sex and BMI influence on activity patterns.

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Nicholas M. Edwards, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Jessica G. Woo, Philip R. Khoury, Stephen R. Daniels and Elaine M. Urbina

Purpose:

The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between objectively-measured physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular risk factors in 7-year-old children and test the hypothesis that it differs by race.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study of 308 7-year-old children drawn from a major US metropolitan community. PA (moderate-to-vigorous, MVPA; light, LPA; and inactivity, IA) was measured by accelerometry (RT3). Cardiovascular risk factors included BMI, blood pressure, and serum lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations. General linear modeling was used to evaluate the independent associations between PA measures and cardiovascular risk factors and interactions by race.

Results:

In black children, greater time spent in PA was independently associated with lower levels of triglycerides (MVPA and LPA, both p < .01), glucose (MVPA, p < .05), and insulin (MVPA, p < .01); these associations were not evident in white children. Across races, greater inactivity was independently associated with greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in overweight participants (p < .01) but not in normal weight participants. No PA measure was associated with BMI, systolic blood pressure, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Conclusions:

In this cohort of 7-year-old children, the relationship between PA and some cardiovascular risk factors differed by race. These findings may have implications for targeting of PA promotion efforts in children.

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

. Robinson compared the ratio-scaled data of the men in his study with his own unpublished data and with values he calculated from individual values of V ˙ O 2 max (in L·min −1 ) and body mass (in kg) published in classical papers which had themselves not ratio-scaled their data ( 16 , 17 , 29 ). In the