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John H. Challis

feeding Gulliver, the Lilliputians provided him with 1,728 times as much food as the average Lilliputian; their theory being that nutritional requirements are proportional to body mass, and that body mass scales in proportion to standing height cubed ( 12 3  = 1,728 ). It turns out that metabolic energy

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Dahai Yu, Ying Chen, Tao Chen, Yamei Cai, Rui Qin, Zhixin Jiang and Zhanzheng Zhao

activities. Body measurements including body height and weight were taken 3 times using a standardized methodology, and the mean of the 2 closest recordings was used. Body mass index (BMI, measured in kg/m 2 ) was calculated based on the obtained body height and weight. Fasting blood specimens were processed

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Mary O. Whipple, Erica N. Schorr, Kristine M.C. Talley, Ruth Lindquist, Ulf G. Bronas and Diane Treat-Jacobson

not the IGT–IGT group Note. BP = blood pressure; BMI = body mass index; CV = cardiovascular; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CWL = clinically significant weight loss; CI = confidence interval; DM = diabetes mellitus; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; IGT = impaired glucose tolerance; KKW

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Allysiê Priscilla de Souza Cavina, Eduardo Pizzo Junior, Aryane Flauzino Machado, Taíse Mendes Biral, Leonardo Kesrouani Lemos, Caio Russo Dutra Rodrigues, Carlos Marcelo Pastre and Franciele Marques Vanderlei

method with another physical exercise or with a control condition; 2. Studies that evaluated the effects before and after the intervention with the method, not associated with diet, regardless of training time; 3. Studies that analyzed body composition through adipometry, body mass index (BMI), and

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Pablo Antonio Valdés-Badilla, Carlos Gutiérrez-García, Mikel Pérez-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo Vargas-Vitoria and Antonio López-Fuenzalida

analyzed the effectiveness of health governmental programs incorporating PA for the older adults, obtaining significant improvements in fall risk prevention ( Day, Donaldson, Thompson, & Thomas, 2014 ); body mass index (BMI); waist circumference; arterial pressure; and motor functionality ( Hetherington

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Meghan K. Edwards and Paul D. Loprinzi

increase lean body mass and basal metabolism, jointly assisting with weight control). 3 Additionally, aerobic and resistance exercise have several unique health outcomes (eg, greater maximum oxygen uptake adaptations from aerobic training vs greater muscular strength and endurance adaptations from

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Areeya Jirathananuwat and Krit Pongpirul

.87 years, the average body mass index was 22.48 kg/m 2 , and 70.24% were single (Table  1 ). They had 13.48 years of work experience on average. Surgical department contributed to 17.30% of the subjects. Data of 1410 periods (morning 66.70%, afternoon 20.82%, and free 12.48%) were received. Table 1

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Megan Colletto and Nancy Rodriguez

warranted. Based on skeletal muscle indices (kg lean body mass/height [m 2 ]), approximately 71% of males and 42% of females older than 65 years are moderately sarcopenic ( Janssen, 2006 ). The development of sarcopenia is multifactorial ( Janssen, 2011 ) and managing sarcopenia is vital to the reduction of

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Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron

. For example, greater variability in sleep duration over 5 to 7 days is associated with higher hemoglobin A1c in older adults with insomnia 5 and in adults with type 1 diabetes without insomnia. 6 There is also evidence that sleep timing variability is associated with greater body mass index (BMI) 7

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Emily Borgundvaag, Michael McIsaac, Michael M. Borghese and Ian Janssen

times they removed the accelerometer and what they were doing when it was removed, and the times they participated in organized sports and what those sports were. Measurement of Health Outcomes The health outcomes examined were the body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), 2 risk factors