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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

volume (while in water) and other entrapped air spaces such as intestinal gas • Results influenced by athletes’ comfort and cooperation in water • Not supported in strength-trained athletes, those with low bone density, b and athletes of certain ethnicities Plethysmography (BOD POD): SEE = 1.8% d

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contraceptive pill or pharmaceutical agents for treating low bone density in female athletes. Rather, increasing energy availability and weight gain are more effective strategies, with bone strength improvements reported over one to six years. There is scant evidence on the long-term bone health in female

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diseased children. More pronounced differences in cerebral oxygenation suggest an important role of the brains in exercise termination. Fat Mass Does Not Mediate the Positive Impact of Lean Mass on Bone Density Accrual in Adolescents Engaged in Different Sports: ABCD Growth Study R. Fernandes, R

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Seoha Min, Sumin Koo and Jennifer Wilson

older adults. Physical changes occurring later in life, such as loss of flexibility, declines in strength, and loss of bone density due to aging ( Charness & Bosman, 1990 ), must all be considered and factored in to the design of gardening apparel. It is critical to consider the physical changes of

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Katie Crockett, Saija A. Kontulainen, Jonathan P. Farthing, Philip D. Chilibeck, Brenna Bath, Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones and Catherine M. Arnold

, Milisen, Dejaeger, & Boonen, 2003 ). If the fall results in a fracture, further follow-up testing to diagnose bone fragility may not occur ( Osteoporosis Canada, 2013 ). Less than 10% of patients receive any form of fall risk assessment or bone density assessment following a DRF, creating a substantial

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Francisco Alvarez-Barbosa, Jesús del Pozo-Cruz, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, Antonio García-Hermoso and Rosa María Alfonso-Rosa

on muscle strength, muscle mass, and bone density in institutionalized elderly women: A 6-month randomized, controlled trial . Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 26 ( 1 ), 42 – 49 . PubMed ID: 20648661 doi: 10.1002/jbmr.181 Yumin , E.T. , Simsek , T.T. , Sertel , M. , Ozturk , A

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

individualized and supervised exercise in the context of treatment rather than independent and unsupervised exercise. Furthermore, Moola, Gairdner, and Amara ( 2013 ) found that nutritionally supported exercise lessens food preoccupation, enhances treatment compliance, increases bone density, and improves

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Inès Boukabous, Alexis Marcotte-Chénard, Taha Amamou, Pierre Boulay, Martin Brochu, Daniel Tessier, Isabelle Dionne and Eléonor Riesco

.L. , & Levine , M.A. ( 2012 ). A multinational study to develop universal standardization of whole-body bone density and composition using GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic DXA systems . Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 27 ( 10 ), 2208 – 2216 . doi:10.1002/jbmr.1654 10.1002/jbmr.1654 Statistics Canada

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Alan L. Smith, Karl Erickson and Leapetswe Malete

adulthood ( Pfeiffer & Wierenga, 2019 ). These are considered desirable outcomes in light of the connection of physical activity to obesity, bone density, self-esteem, and other markers of physical and mental health ( Stensel, Gorely, & Biddle, 2008 ). Yet, research on these issues requires much more

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Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N. Shelling, Clare R. Wall, Edwin A. Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M.E. McCowan and John M.D. Thompson

composition limits its effectiveness as a marker of obesity. In particular, BMI may be misclassifying individuals as having unacceptable body fat due to elevated muscle mass and bone density ( 35 , 51 ). Indeed, a follow-up regression analysis of body fat and components of body composition with proportions of